AbstractMarine sediments comprise one of the largest environments on the planet, and their microbial inhabitants are significant players in global carbon and nutrient cycles. Recent studies using metagenomic techniques have shown the complexity of these communities and identified novel microorganisms from the ocean floor. Here, we obtained 77 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from the bacterial phylum Armatimonadota in the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California, and the Bohai Sea, China. These MAGs comprise two previously undescribed classes within Armatimonadota, which we propose naming Hebobacteria and Zipacnadia. They are globally distributed in hypoxic and anoxic environments and are dominant members of deep-sea sediments (up to 1.95% of metagenomic raw reads). The classes described here also have unique metabolic capabilities, possessing pathways to reduce carbon dioxide to acetate via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (WLP) and generating energy through the oxidative branch of glycolysis using carbon dioxide as an electron sink, maintaining the redox balance using the WLP. Hebobacteria may also be autotrophic, not previously identified in Armatimonadota. Furthermore, these Armatimonadota may play a role in sulfur and nitrogen cycling, using the intermediate compounds hydroxylamine and sulfite. Description of these MAGs enhances our understanding of diversity and metabolic potential within anoxic habitats worldwide.
Parvarchaeales” microbes may represent a lineage uniquely distributed in extreme environments such as AMD and hot springs. However, little is known about the strategies and processes of how they adapted to these extreme environments.
AbstractNiche concept is a core tenet of ecology that has recently been applied in marine microbial research to describe the partitioning of taxa based either on adaptations to specific conditions across environments or on adaptations to specialised substrates. In this study, we combine spatiotemporal dynamics and predicted substrate utilisation to describe species-level niche partitioning within the NS5 Marine Group. Despite NS5 representing one of the most abundant marine flavobacterial clades from across the world’s oceans, our knowledge on their phylogenetic diversity and ecological functions is limited. Using novel and database-derived 16S rRNA gene and ribosomal protein sequences, we delineate the NS5 into 35 distinct species-level clusters, contained within four novel candidate genera. One candidate species, “Arcticimaribacter forsetii AHE01FL”, includes a novel cultured isolate, for which we provide a complete genome sequence—the first of an NS5—along with morphological insights using transmission electron microscopy. Assessing species’ spatial distribution dynamics across the Tara Oceans dataset, we identify depth as a key influencing factor, with 32 species preferring surface waters, as well as distinct patterns in relation to temperature, oxygen and salinity. Each species harbours a unique substrate-degradation potential along with predicted substrates conserved at the genus-level, e.g. alginate in NS5_F. Successional dynamics were observed for three species in a time-series dataset, likely driven by specialised substrate adaptations. We propose that the ecological niche partitioning of NS5 species is mainly based on specific abiotic factors, which define the niche space, and substrate availability that drive the species-specific temporal dynamics.
AbstractAcidobacteriota are widespread and often abundant in marine sediments, yet their metabolic and ecological properties are poorly understood. Here, we examined metabolisms and distributions of Acidobacteriota in marine sediments of Svalbard by functional predictions from metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrB) genes and transcripts, and gene expression analyses of tetrathionate-amended microcosms. Acidobacteriota were the second most abundant dsrB-harboring (averaging 13%) phylum after Desulfobacterota in Svalbard sediments, and represented 4% of dsrB transcripts on average. Meta-analysis of dsrAB datasets also showed Acidobacteriota dsrAB sequences are prominent in marine sediments worldwide, averaging 15% of all sequences analysed, and represent most of the previously unclassified dsrAB in marine sediments. We propose two new Acidobacteriota genera, Candidatus Sulfomarinibacter (class Thermoanaerobaculia, “subdivision 23”) and Ca. Polarisedimenticola (“subdivision 22”), with distinct genetic properties that may explain their distributions in biogeochemically distinct sediments. Ca. Sulfomarinibacter encode flexible respiratory routes, with potential for oxygen, nitrous oxide, metal-oxide, tetrathionate, sulfur and sulfite/sulfate respiration, and possibly sulfur disproportionation. Potential nutrients and energy include cellulose, proteins, cyanophycin, hydrogen, and acetate. A Ca. Polarisedimenticola MAG encodes various enzymes to degrade proteins, and to reduce oxygen, nitrate, sulfur/polysulfide and metal-oxides. 16S rRNA gene and transcript profiling of Svalbard sediments showed Ca. Sulfomarinibacter members were relatively abundant and transcriptionally active in sulfidic fjord sediments, while Ca. Polarisedimenticola members were more relatively abundant in metal-rich fjord sediments. Overall, we reveal various physiological features of uncultured marine Acidobacteriota that indicate fundamental roles in seafloor biogeochemical cycling.
AbstractStrategies to increase the production rate of chicken for human consumption alter the natural process of microbial colonisation and the nutritional performance of the animal. The lack of sufficient reference genomes limits the interpretation of sequencing data and restrain the study of complex functions. In this study, 43 strains obtained from crop, jejunum and ileum of chicken were isolated, characterised and genome analysed to observe their metabolic profiles, adaptive strategies and to serve as future references. Eight isolates represent new species that colonise the upper gut intestinal tract and present consistent adaptations that enable us to predict their ecological role, expanding our knowledge on the adaptive functions. Molecular characterisation confirmed the classification ofClostridium anaeroviscerissp. nov. (DSM 113860= LMG 32675),Clostridium butanolproducens(DSM 115076= LMG 32878),Ligilactobacillus hohenheimiussp. nov. (DSM 113870= LMG 32876),Limosilactobacillus gallussp. nov. (DSM 113833 =LMG 32623),Limosilactobacillus aviumsp. nov. (DSM 113849= LMG 32671), Limosilactobacillus pullumsp. nov. (DSM 115077 =LMG 32877),Limosilactobacillus digestussp. nov. (DSM113835= LMG 32625) andLimosilactobacillus difficilesp. nov. (DSM 114195= LMG 32875). Strains ofLimosilactobacilluswere found to be more abundant in the crop, whileLigilactobacillusdominated the ileal digesta. Isolates from crop encode a high number of glycosidases specialized in complex polysaccharides compared to strains isolated from jejunum and ileum. These results represent the first approach for the isolation and detection of bacteria from the chicken’s upper digestive tract and describe the functional diversity of bacteria inhabiting these regions, improving the potential handling of chicken microbiota with biotechnological applications.