AbstractNitrate leaching from agricultural soils is increasingly found in groundwater, a primary source of drinking water worldwide. This nitrate influx can potentially stimulate the biological oxidation of iron in anoxic groundwater reservoirs. Nitrate-reducing iron-oxidizing (NRFO) bacteria have been extensively studied in laboratory settings, yet their ecophysiology in natural environments remains largely unknown. To this end, we established a pilot-scale filter on nitrate-rich groundwater to elucidate the structure and metabolism of nitrate-reducing iron-oxidizing microbiomes under oligotrophic conditions mimicking natural groundwaters. The enriched community stoichiometrically removed iron and nitrate consistently with NRFO metabolism. Genome-resolved metagenomics revealed the underlying metabolic network between the dominant iron-dependent denitrifying autotrophs and the less abundant organoheterotrophs. The most abundant genome belonged to a newCandidateorder, named Siderophiliales. This new species, “CandidatusSiderophilus nitratireducens”, carries central genes to iron oxidation (cytochromec cyc2), carbon fixation (rbc), and for the sole periplasmic nitrate reductase (nap). To our knowledge, this is the first report ofnap-based lithoautotrophic growth, and we demonstrate that iron oxidation coupled to dissimilatory reduction of nitrate to nitrite is thermodynamically favourable under realistic Fe3+/Fe2+andconcentration ratios. Ultimately, by bridging the gap between laboratory investigations and real-world conditions, this study provides insights into the intricate interplay between nitrate and iron in groundwater ecosystems, and expands our understanding of NRFOs taxonomic diversity and ecological role.
‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) is a phloem-limited pathogen associated with devastating diseases in members of the Solanaceae and Apiaceae and vectored by several psyllid species. Different Lso haplotypes have been identified, and LsoA and LsoB are responsible for diseases in Solanaceae crops. Our efforts are aimed at identifying pathogenicity factors used by this bacterium to thrive in different hosts. Bacterial secreted proteins can play a role in host colonization or the manipulation of the host immune responses; these proteins are called effectors. In this study, we identified six LsoB specific proteins with a conserved secretion motif as well as a conserved N-terminal domain in the mature protein. These proteins had different expression and secretion patterns but a similar subcellular localization in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves suggesting they play different roles regardless of their conserved secretion motif. One of these proteins, CKC_04425, was expressed at high levels in the insect vector and the host plant indicating it could play a role in both the plant and insect hosts, while the others were mainly expressed in the plant. One protein, CKC_05701, was able to efficiently suppress programmed cell death and reactive oxygen species production suggesting it may have a virulence role in LsoB-specific pathogenesis.
The most damaging citrus diseases are Huanglongbing (HLB) and citrus canker, which are caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) and Xanthomonas citri pv. citri (Xcc), respectively. Endolysins from bacteriophages are a possible option for disease resistance in plant breeding. Here, we report improvement of citrus resistance to HLB and citrus canker using the LasLYS1 and LasLYS2 endolysins from CaLas. LasLYS2 demonstrated bactericidal efficacy against several Rhizobiaceae bacteria and Xcc, according to inhibition zone analyses. The two genes, driven by a strong promoter from Cauliflower mosaic virus, 35S, were integrated into Carrizo citrange via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. More than 2 years of greenhouse testing indicated that LasLYS2 provided substantial and long-lasting resistance to HLB, allowing transgenic plants to retain low CaLas titers and no obvious symptoms while also clearing CaLas from infected plants in the long term. LasLYS2 transgenic plants with improved HLB resistance also showed resistance to Xcc, indicating that LasLYS2 had dual resistance to HLB and citrus canker. A microbiome study of transgenic plants revealed that the endolysins repressed Xanthomonadaceae and Rhizobiaceae populations in roots while increasing Burkholderiaceae and Rhodanobacteraceae populations, which might boost the citrus defense response, according to transcriptome analysis. We also found that Lyz domain 2 is the key bactericidal motif of LasLYS1 and LasLYS2. Four endolysins with potential resistance to HLB and citrus canker were found based on the structures of LasLYS1 and LasLYS2. Overall, the work shed light on the mechanisms of resistance of CaLas-derived endolysins, providing insights for designing endolysins to develop broad-spectrum disease resistance in citrus.
AbstractSymbiotic bacteria can alter host biology by providing protection from natural enemies, or alter reproduction or vectoral competence. Symbiont‐linked control of vector‐borne disease in Anopheles has been hampered by a lack of symbioses that can establish stable vertical transmission in the host. Previous screening found the symbiont ‘Candidatus Tisiphia’ in Anopheles plumbeus, an aggressive biter and potential secondary vector of malaria parasites and West Nile virus. We screened samples collected over 10‐years across Germany and used climate databases to assess environmental influence on incidence. We observed a 95% infection rate, and that the frequency of infection did not fluctuate with broad environmental factors. Maternal inheritance is indicated by presence in the ovaries through FISH microscopy. Finally, we assembled a high‐quality 1.6 Mbp draft genome of ‘Ca. Tisiphia’ to explore its phylogeny and potential metabolic competence. The infection is closely related to strains found in Culicoides biting midges and shows similar patterns of metabolism, providing no evidence of the capacity to synthesize B‐vitamins. This infection offers avenues for onward research in anopheline mosquito symbioses. Additionally, it provides future opportunity to study the impact of ‘Ca. Tisiphia’ on natural and transinfected hosts, especially in relation to reproductive fitness and vectorial competence and capacity.