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Cas12a-Based Diagnostics for Potato Purple Top Disease Complex Associated with Infection by ‘<i>Candidatus</i> Phytoplasma trifolii’-Related Strains

Citation
Wheatley et al. (2022). Plant Disease 106 (8)
Names
Ca. Phytoplasma trifolii
Subjects
Agronomy and Crop Science Plant Science
Abstract
‘Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii’ is a cell wall-less phytopathogenic bacterium that infects many agriculturally important plant species such as alfalfa, clover, eggplant, pepper, potato, and tomato. The phytoplasma is responsible for repeated outbreaks of potato purple top (PPT) and potato witches’ broom (PWB) that occurred along the Pacific Coast of the United States since 2002, inflicting significant economic losses. To effectively manage these phytoplasmal diseases, it is important to develop diagnostic tools for specific, sensitive, and rapid detection of the pathogens. Here we report the development of a DNA endonuclease targeted CRISPR trans reporter (DETECTR) assay that couples isothermal amplification and Cas12a transcleavage of fluorescent oligonucleotide reporter for highly sensitive and specific detection of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii’-related strains responsible for PPT and PWB. The DETECTR assay was capable of specifically detecting the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic transcribed spacer sequences from PPT- and PWB-diseased samples at the attomolar sensitivity level. Furthermore, the DETECTR strategy allows flexibility to capture assay outputs with fluorescent microplate readers or lateral flow assays for potentially high-throughput and/or field-deployable disease diagnostics.

<i>Candidatus</i> Liberibacter asiaticus accumulation in the phloem inhibits callose and reactive oxygen species

Citation
Bernardini et al. (2022). Plant Physiology
Names
Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus
Subjects
Genetics Physiology Plant Science
Abstract
CLas inhibits callose deposition in the sieve pores and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species to favor its cell-to-cell movement.

The ‘<i>Candidatus</i> Phytoplasma mali’ effector protein SAP11<sub>CaPm</sub> interacts with MdTCP16, a class II CYC/TB1 transcription factor that is highly expressed during phytoplasma infection

Citation
Mittelberger et al. [posted content, 2022]
Names
Ca. Phytoplasma mali Ca. Phytoplasma asteris
Abstract
Abstract‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’, is a bacterial pathogen associated with the so-called apple proliferation disease in Malus × domestica. The pathogen manipulates its host with a set of effector proteins, among them SAP11CaPm, which shares similarity to SAP11AYWB from ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’. SAP11AYWB interacts and destabilizes the class II CIN transcription factors of Arabidopsis thaliana, namely AtTCP4 and AtTCP13 as well as the class II CYC/TB1 transcription factor AtTCP18, also known as BRANCHED1 being an important factor for shoot branching. It has been shown that SAP11CaPm interacts with the Malus × domestica orthologues of AtTCP4 (MdTCP25) and AtTCP13 (MdTCP24), but an interaction with MdTCP16, the orthologue of AtTCP18, has never been proven. The aim of this study was to investigate this potential interaction and close a knowledge gap regarding the function of SAP11CaPm. A Yeast two-hybrid test and Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation in planta revealed that SAP11CaPm interacts with MdTCP16. MdTCP16 is known to play a role in the control of the seasonal growth of perennial plants and an increase of MdTCP16 gene expression has been detected in apple leaves in autumn. In addition to this, MdTCP16 is highly expressed during phytoplasma infection. Binding of MdTCP16 by SAP11CaPm might lead to the induction of shoot proliferation and early bud break, both of which are characteristic symptoms of apple proliferation disease.

Update and validation of the 16S rDNA qPCR assay for the detection of three ‘Candidatus’ Liberibacter species following current MIQE guidelines and workflow

Citation
Osman et al. (2022). PhytoFrontiers™
Names
Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus Liberibacter
Subjects
General Medicine
Abstract
An updated real-time multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was designed and validated for the simultaneous detection of three ‘Candidatus Liberibacter species’ (CLsp), Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), africanus (CLaf) and americanus (CLam), associated with the Huanglongbing (HLB) disease of citrus. The multiplex assay was designed based on the previously published qPCR assay by Li et al., 2006, taking into consideration all available CLsp 16S rRNA gene sequences in the GenBank and the MIQE guidelines and workflow for qPCR optimization, which became available after 2006. When using the updated multiplex CLsp qPCR assay compared to singleplex qPCR, no significant increase in Cq values was detected. The specificity and sensitivity of the updated qPCR assay was optimal and measuring the intra and inter assay variations confirmed the reproducibility and repeatability of the assay. The assay was also successfully used with a large number of diverse samples, at independent laboratories in four countries, thus demonstrating its transferability, applicability, practicability, and robustness as different qPCR reaction conditions or instruments had a minor effect on Cq values. This updated multiplex CLsp qPCR assay can be used in a variety of citrus surveys, germplasm, or nursery stock programs that require different pathogen detection tools for their successful operation. Keywords: Citrus greening disease, COX internal DNA control; validation; citrus germplasm; budwood; citrus nursery, citrus survey, regulatory diagnostics, Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP), National Clean Plant Network (NCPN)