IntroductionHuanglonbing (HLB) is the most serious disease of citrus in the world, associated with three non-cultivable phloem-restricted bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), Ca L. africanus (CLaf) and Ca L. americanus (CLam). CLas is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri, and has spread to several countries. The African psyllid Trioza erytreae, the vector of CLaf occurs in Africa and neighbouring islands. Only two major citrus-growing regions - Australia/New Zealand and the Mediterranean Basin - are still HLB-free in the world. However, T. erytreae has recently been introduced into continental Europe (Portugal and Spain) and has become a potential threat to citrus production. The transmission of CLas by T. erytreae had been postulated but never tested. To evaluate the risk of T. erytreae transmitting CLas, comparative transmissions of CLas by T. erytreae and D. citri were assessed.MethodsTransmission tests were performed on excised leaves and seedlings of Citrus volkameriana with different inoculation access periods (in series) for both insect species. Quantifications of bacterial titers were made in excised leaves, seedlings three and six months after inoculation and on individual insects.ResultsOur results showed that T. erytreae was able to efficiently acquire CLas. Furthermore, T. erytreae carried significantly higher bacterial titers than D. citri, and was able to efficiently transmit the bacteria to seedlings at a similar rate that D. citri highlighting the high risk of spread of the most aggressive variant of HLB (CLas) by T. erytreae in Europe.DiscussionThus, extreme precautions to prevent any entry of CLas into Europe should be adopted.
The hypervariable genomic regions derived from 35 published
Las genomes were used to decipher the genetic diversity of
Las strains and identify 10 new strains with high variations in prophage regions. Characterizing these variations in the
Las bacteria might provide insight into their evolution and adaptation to host plants and insects in China.
AbstractMolecular computing was used to investigate the possible causal agents of chilli crop samples showing mixed symptoms of yellow leaf curl and little leaf type diseases in the Uttar Pradesh province, India. Total genomic DNA was extracted from twenty-five samples and amplified by PCR using a universal primer pair for begomovirus and phytoplasma. Mixed infection samples show positive amplified products for begomovirus (DNA-A and betasatellite) and phytoplasma (16S rRNA and Sec A). The identified begomovirus from chilli samples was identified as a strain isolate of the previously described Chilli Leaf Curl Virus (94.2% nucleotide sequence identity), which is known to infectSolanum lycopersicon, in Oman, whereas the 16S rRNA was identified from the sourceCandidatus Phytoplasma trifolii(99.04% nucleotide sequence identity), which is known to infect Helichrysum flowering plants in India. Subsequently, molecular computing research based on phylogenetic interweaves, putative recombination, amino acid selection, and genetic diversity were investigated, revealing divergent evolutionary patterns with significant variation and recombination events. The majority of the sequence variations observed in begomovirus and phytoplasma were caused via inter- and intra-specific recombination. These findings could be the firstin silicocombined infection analysis of ChiLCV andCa.P.trifoliiin a chilli crop in India, revealing the potential adaption and evolution of begomovirus and phytoplasma to a new geographic range and crop.
Patescibacteria” have been estimated to account for one-quarter of the total microbial diversity on Earth, the parasitic lifestyle of which may exert a profound control on the overall microbial population size of the local ecosystems. However, their diversity and metabolic functions in marine sediments, one of the largest yet understudied ecosystems on Earth, remain virtually uncharacterized.
AbstractAkkermansiamuciniphila is a human intestinal tract bacterium that plays an important role in the mucus layer renewal. Several studies have demonstrated that it is a modulator for gut homeostasis and a probiotic for human health. The Akkermansia genus contains two species with standing in nomenclature but their genomic diversity remains unclear. In this study, eight new Akkermansia sp. strains were isolated from the human gut. Using the digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH), average nucleotide identity (ANI) and core genome-based phylogenetic analysis applied to 104 A.muciniphila whole genomes sequences, strains were reclassified into three clusters. Cluster I groups A.muciniphila strains (including strain ATCC BAA-835T as type strain), whereas clusters II and III represent two new species. A member of cluster II, strain Marseille-P6666 differed from A.muciniphila strain ATCC BAA-835T and from A.glycaniphila strain PytT in its ability to grow in microaerophilic atmosphere up to 42 °C, to assimilate various carbon sources and to produce acids from a several compounds. The major fatty acids of strain Marseille-P6666 were 12-methyl-tetradecanoic and pentadecanoic acids. The DNA G + C content of strain Marseille-P6666 was 57.8%. On the basis of these properties, we propose the name A.massiliensis sp. nov. for members of cluster II, with strain Marseille-P6666T (= CSUR P6666 = CECT 30548) as type strain. We also propose the name “Candidatus Akkermansia timonensis” sp. nov. for the members of cluster III, which contains only uncultivated strains, strain Akk0196 being the type strain.
AbstractCandidatusParvarchaeales, representing a DPANN archaeal group with limited metabolic potentials and reliance on hosts for their growth, were initially found in acid mine drainage (AMD). Due to the lack of representatives, however, their ecological roles and adaptation to extreme habitats such as AMD, as well as how they diverge across the lineage remain largely unexplored. By applying genome-resolved metagenomics, 28Parvarchaeales-associated metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) representing two orders and five genera were recovered. Among them, we identified three new genera and proposed the namesCandidatusJingweiarchaeum,CandidatusHaiyanarchaeum, andCandidatusRehaiarchaeum with the former two belonging to a new orderCandidatusJingweiarchaeales. Further analyses of metabolic potentials revealed substantial niche differentiation between Jingweiarchaeales and Parvarchaeales. Jingweiarchaeales may rely on fermentation, salvage pathways, partial glycolysis, and pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) for energy reservation, while the metabolic potentials of Parvarchaeales might be more versatile. Comparative genomic analyses suggested that Jingweiarchaeales are more favorable to habitats with higher temperatures andParvarchaealesare better adapted to acidic environments. We further revealed that the thermal adaptation of these lineages especially for Haiyanarchaeum might rely on innate genomic features such as the usage of specific amino acids, genome streamlining, and hyperthermal featured genes such asrgy. Notably, the acidic adaptation of Parvarchaeales was possibly driven by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Reconstruction of ancestral states demonstrated that both may originate from thermal and neutral environments and later spread to mesothermal and acidic environments. These evolutionary processes may also be accompanied by adaptation toward oxygen-rich environments via HGT.ImportanceCandidatusParvarchaeales may represent a lineage uniquely distributed in extreme environments such as AMD and hot springs. However, little is known about the strategies and processes of how they adapted to these extreme environments. By the discovery of potential new order-level lineages - Jingweiarchaeales and in-depth comparative genomic analysis, we unveiled the functional differentiation of these lineages. Further, we show that the adaptation to high-temperature and acidic environments of these lineages was driven by different strategies, with the prior relying more on innate genomic characteristics and the latter more on the acquisition of genes associated with acid tolerance. Finally, by reconstruction of ancestral states of OGT andpI, we showed the potential evolutionary process of Parvarchaeales-related lineages with regard to the shift from a high-temperature environment of their common ancestors to low-temperature (potentially acidic) environments.
’Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’, is a bacterial pathogen associated with the so-called apple proliferation disease in Malus × domestica. The pathogen manipulates its host with a set of effector proteins, among them SAP11CaPm, which shares similarity to SAP11AYWB from ’Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’. SAP11AYWB interacts and destabilizes the class II CIN transcription factors of Arabidopsis thaliana, namely AtTCP4 and AtTCP13 as well as the class II CYC/TB1 transcription factor AtTCP18, also known as BRANCHED1 being an important factor for shoot branching. It has been shown that SAP11CaPm interacts with the Malus × domestica orthologues of AtTCP4 (MdTCP25) and AtTCP13 (MdTCP24), but an interaction with MdTCP16, the orthologue of AtTCP18, has never been proven. The aim of this study was to investigate this potential interaction and close a knowledge gap regarding the function of SAP11CaPm. A Yeast two-hybrid test and Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation in planta revealed that SAP11CaPm interacts with MdTCP16. MdTCP16 is known to play a role in the control of the seasonal growth of perennial plants and an increase of MdTCP16 gene expression has been detected in apple leaves in autumn. In addition to this, MdTCP16 is highly expressed during phytoplasma infection. Binding of MdTCP16 by SAP11CaPm might lead to the induction of shoot proliferation and early bud break, both of which are characteristic symptoms of apple proliferation disease.