AbstractTrace metals have been an important ingredient for life throughout Earth’s history. Here, we describe the genome-guided cultivation of a member of the elusive archaeal lineage Caldarchaeales (syn. Aigarchaeota), Wolframiiraptor gerlachensis, and its growth dependence on tungsten. A metagenome-assembled genome (MAG) of W. gerlachensis encodes putative tungsten membrane transport systems, as well as pathways for anaerobic oxidation of sugars probably mediated by tungsten-dependent ferredoxin oxidoreductases that are expressed during growth. Catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in-situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) show that W. gerlachensis preferentially assimilates xylose. Phylogenetic analyses of 78 high-quality Wolframiiraptoraceae MAGs from terrestrial and marine hydrothermal systems suggest that tungsten-associated enzymes were present in the last common ancestor of extant Wolframiiraptoraceae. Our observations imply a crucial role for tungsten-dependent metabolism in the origin and evolution of this lineage, and hint at a relic metabolic dependence on this trace metal in early anaerobic thermophiles.
AbstractAnaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) bacteria are a group of extraordinary bacteria exerting a major impact on the global nitrogen cycle. Their phylogenetic breadth and diversity, however, are not well constrained. Here we describe a new, deep-branching family in the order of Candidatus Brocadiales, Candidatus Bathyanammoxibiaceae, members of which have genes encoding the key enzymes of the anammox metabolism. In marine sediment cores from the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR), the presence of Ca. Bathyanammoxibiaceae was confined within the nitrate-ammonium transition zones with the counter gradients of nitrate and ammonium, coinciding with the predicted occurrence of the anammox process. Ca. Bathyanammoxibiaceae genomes encode the core genetic machinery for the anammox metabolism, including hydrazine synthase for converting nitric oxide and ammonium to hydrazine, and hydrazine dehydrogenase for hydrazine oxidation to dinitrogen gas, and hydroxylamine oxidoreductase for nitrite reduction to nitric oxide. Their occurrences assessed by genomes and 16S rRNA gene sequencings surveys indicate that they are present in both marine and terrestrial environments. By introducing the anammox potential of Ca. Bathyanammoxibiaceae and charactering their ideal niche in marine sediments, our findings suggest that the diversity and abundance of anammox bacteria may be higher than previously thought, and provide important insights on cultivating them in the future to not only assess their biogeochemical impacts but also constrain the emergence and evolutionary history of this functional guild on Earth.
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the group/subgroup of phytoplasma agent in peppers showing phytoplasma symptoms.
Material and Methods: In this study, plants collected from Iğdır province in 2020 were analyzed using direct and nested PCR tests, and BLASTn, iphyClassifier, Mega 7, and pDRAW32 programs were used.
Results: In the tests performed, approximately 1.2 kb of DNA fragments specific to phytoplasma were obtained. The 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence (1254 bp in length) (OM663745) revealed that it was showed more than 99.44% nucleotide similarity to other ‘Ca. P. trifolii’ members. The tentative RFLP and phylogenetic analyzes performed proved the ‘Ca. P. trifolii’ the infection from the Clover proliferation group (16SrVI) group and subgroup A in symptomatic pepper plants.
Conclusion: The presence of ‘Ca. P. trifolii’ in naturally infected peppers in Iğdır province of Turkey was detected using PCR-RFLP and cladistic analysis.
AbstractThe understanding and manipulation of microbial communities toward the conversion of lignocellulose and plastics are topics of interest in microbial ecology and biotechnology. In this study, the polymer-degrading capability of a minimal lignocellulolytic microbial consortium (MELMC) was explored by genome-resolved metagenomics. The MELMC was mostly composed (>90%) of three bacterial members (Pseudomonas protegens; Pristimantibacillus lignocellulolyticus gen. nov., sp. nov; and Ochrobactrum gambitense sp. nov) recognized by their high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs). Functional annotation of these MAGs revealed that Pr. lignocellulolyticus could be involved in cellulose and xylan deconstruction, whereas Ps. protegens could catabolize lignin-derived chemical compounds. The capacity of the MELMC to transform synthetic plastics was assessed by two strategies: (i) annotation of MAGs against databases containing plastic-transforming enzymes; and (ii) predicting enzymatic activity based on chemical structural similarities between lignin- and plastics-derived chemical compounds, using Simplified Molecular-Input Line-Entry System and Tanimoto coefficients. Enzymes involved in the depolymerization of polyurethane and polybutylene adipate terephthalate were found to be encoded by Ps. protegens, which could catabolize phthalates and terephthalic acid. The axenic culture of Ps. protegens grew on polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) nanoparticles and might be a suitable species for the industrial production of PHAs in the context of lignin and plastic upcycling.
Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most devastating citrus disease in the world. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is the prevalent HLB pathogen, which is yet to be cultivated. A recent study demonstrates that Las does not contain pathogenicity factors that are directly responsible for HLB symptoms. Instead, Las triggers systemic and chronic immune responses, representing a pathogen-triggered immune disease. Importantly, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causes systemic cell death of phloem tissues, thus causing HLB symptoms. Because Las resides in the phloem tissues, it is expected that phloem cell might recognize outer membrane proteins, outer membrane vesicle (OMV) proteins and extracellular proteins of Las to contribute to the immune responses. Because Las has not been cultivated, we used Liberibacter crescens (Lcr) as a surrogate to identify proteins in the OM fraction, OMV proteins and extracellular proteins by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). We observed OMVs of Lcr under scanning electron microscope, representing the first experimental evidence that Liberibacter can deliver proteins to the extracellular compartment. In addition, we also further analyzed LC–MS/MS data using bioinformatic tools. Our study provides valuable information regarding the biology of Ca. Liberibacter species and identifies many putative proteins that may interact with host proteins in the phloem tissues.