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Extensive microbial diversity within the chicken gut microbiome revealed by metagenomics and culture

Citation
Gilroy et al. (2021). PeerJ 9
Names
“Anaerostipes avicola” “Mediterraneibacter excrementigallinarum” “Ruthenibacterium merdavium” “Gemmiger stercoravium” “Eisenbergiella intestinipullorum” “Merdibacter merdavium” “Enterocloster excrementipullorum” “Borkfalkia stercoripullorum” “Gemmiger stercoripullorum” “Merdibacter merdigallinarum” “Intestinimonas stercoravium” “Limosilactobacillus intestinipullorum” “Mediterraneibacter pullistercoris” “Faecalibacterium gallistercoris” “Borkfalkia excrementigallinarum” “Mediterraneibacter stercoripullorum” “Anaerotignum merdipullorum” “Fusicatenibacter merdavium” “Anaerostipes excrementavium” “Blautia pullistercoris” “Hungatella pullicola” “Borkfalkia faecipullorum” “Acetatifactor stercoripullorum” “Mediterraneibacter vanvlietii” “Eisenbergiella stercoravium” “Butyricicoccus avistercoris” “Blautia stercorigallinarum” “Acutalibacter stercorigallinarum” “Mediterraneibacter excrementavium” “Corynebacterium faecigallinarum” “Phocaeicola excrementigallinarum” “Blautia merdavium” “Anaerostipes avistercoris” “Dietzia intestinigallinarum” “Mediterraneibacter faecigallinarum” “Mediterraneibacter faecipullorum” “Dietzia intestinipullorum” “Alistipes stercoravium” “Eisenbergiella merdavium” “Ligilactobacillus avistercoris” “Eisenbergiella merdigallinarum” “Dorea faecigallinarum” “Nosocomiicoccus stercorigallinarum” “Mailhella merdavium” “Microbacterium pullistercoris” “Fournierella excrementigallinarum” “Oscillibacter pullicola” “Fournierella merdavium” “Desulfovibrio gallistercoris” “Blautia merdipullorum” “Phocaeicola faecigallinarum” “Alistipes avicola” “Oscillibacter excrementavium” “Bariatricus faecipullorum” “Desulfovibrio intestinavium” “Brachybacterium merdavium” “Oscillibacter excrementigallinarum” “Brevibacterium intestinavium” “Agathobaculum intestinipullorum” “Limosilactobacillus excrementigallinarum” “Mediterraneibacter merdigallinarum” “Fournierella merdigallinarum” “Mediterraneibacter pullicola” “Mediterraneibacter merdipullorum” “Microbacterium stercoravium” “Collinsella stercoripullorum” “Ligilactobacillus excrementavium” “Mucispirillum faecigallinarum” “Janibacter merdipullorum” “Lactobacillus pullistercoris” “Atopostipes pullistercoris” “Gemmiger excrementavium” “Fournierella merdipullorum” “Ruania gallistercoris” “Tidjanibacter faecipullorum” “Companilactobacillus pullicola” “Rothia avicola” “Rubneribacter avistercoris” “Sphingobacterium stercorigallinarum” “Intestinimonas merdavium” “Luteimonas excrementigallinarum” “Alistipes intestinigallinarum” “Tetragenococcus pullicola” “Eisenbergiella pullistercoris” “Agathobaculum merdavium” “Evtepia faecavium” “Barnesiella excrementavium” “Acutalibacter pullistercoris” “Anaerofilum excrementigallinarum” “Evtepia faecigallinarum” “Gemmiger excrementipullorum” “Parabacteroides intestinigallinarum” “Anaerobiospirillum pullistercoris” “Acinetobacter avistercoris” “Limosilactobacillus merdigallinarum” “Desulfovibrio intestinigallinarum” “Blautia stercoravium” “Barnesiella excrementigallinarum” “Gemmiger faecavium” “Ligilactobacillus excrementigallinarum” “Alectryobacillus” “Alectryobacillus merdavium”
Subjects
General Agricultural and Biological Sciences General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology General Medicine General Neuroscience
Abstract
Background The chicken is the most abundant food animal in the world. However, despite its importance, the chicken gut microbiome remains largely undefined. Here, we exploit culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches to reveal extensive taxonomic diversity within this complex microbial community. Results We performed metagenomic sequencing of fifty chicken faecal samples from two breeds and analysed these, alongside all (n = 582) relevant publicly available chicken metagenomes, to cluster over 20 million non-redundant genes and to construct over 5,500 metagenome-assembled bacterial genomes. In addition, we recovered nearly 600 bacteriophage genomes. This represents the most comprehensive view of taxonomic diversity within the chicken gut microbiome to date, encompassing hundreds of novel candidate bacterial genera and species. To provide a stable, clear and memorable nomenclature for novel species, we devised a scalable combinatorial system for the creation of hundreds of well-formed Latin binomials. We cultured and genome-sequenced bacterial isolates from chicken faeces, documenting over forty novel species, together with three species from the genus Escherichia, including the newly named species Escherichia whittamii. Conclusions Our metagenomic and culture-based analyses provide new insights into the bacterial, archaeal and bacteriophage components of the chicken gut microbiome. The resulting datasets expand the known diversity of the chicken gut microbiome and provide a key resource for future high-resolution taxonomic and functional studies on the chicken gut microbiome.

Genomic Insights Into the Archaea Inhabiting an Australian Radioactive Legacy Site

Citation
Vázquez-Campos et al. (2021). Frontiers in Microbiology 12
Names
Ca. Micrarchaeota Ca. Methanoperedens Ca. Methanoperedenaceae “Tiddalikarchaeum anstoanum” Ca. Tiddalikarchaeaceae “Gugararchaeum adminiculabundum” Ca. Gugararchaeaceae Ca. Gugararchaeum Ca. Gugararchaeales Ca. Burarchaeum Ca. Burarchaeum australiense Ca. Anstonella stagnisolia Ca. Burarchaeaceae Ca. Anstonellaceae Ca. Burarchaeales Ca. Bilamarchaeum Ca. Anstonella Ca. Bilamarchaeum dharawalense Ca. Bilamarchaeaceae Ca. Norongarragalina Ca. Anstonellales Ca. Norongarragalina meridionalis Ca. Micrarchaeaceae Ca. Norongarragalinaceae Ca. Micrarchaeales Ca. Norongarragalinales “Tiddalikarchaeum” Ca. Micrarchaeia Ca. Tiddalikarchaeales “Nanoarchaeia”
Subjects
Microbiology Microbiology (medical)
Abstract
During the 1960s, small quantities of radioactive materials were co-disposed with chemical waste at the Little Forest Legacy Site (LFLS, Sydney, Australia). The microbial function and population dynamics in a waste trench during a rainfall event have been previously investigated revealing a broad abundance of candidate and potentially undescribed taxa in this iron-rich, radionuclide-contaminated environment. Applying genome-based metagenomic methods, we recovered 37 refined archaeal MAGs, mainly from undescribed DPANN Archaea lineages without standing in nomenclature and ‘Candidatus Methanoperedenaceae’ (ANME-2D). Within the undescribed DPANN, the newly proposed orders ‘Ca. Gugararchaeales’, ‘Ca. Burarchaeales’ and ‘Ca. Anstonellales’, constitute distinct lineages with a more comprehensive central metabolism and anabolic capabilities within the ‘Ca. Micrarchaeota’ phylum compared to most other DPANN. The analysis of new and extant ‘Ca. Methanoperedens spp.’ MAGs suggests metal ions as the ancestral electron acceptors during the anaerobic oxidation of methane while the respiration of nitrate/nitrite via molybdopterin oxidoreductases would have been a secondary acquisition. The presence of genes for the biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates in most ‘Ca. Methanoperedens’ also appears to be a widespread characteristic of the genus for carbon accumulation. This work expands our knowledge about the roles of the Archaea at the LFLS, especially, DPANN Archaea and ‘Ca. Methanoperedens’, while exploring their diversity, uniqueness, potential role in elemental cycling, and evolutionary history.

Lists of names of prokaryotic Candidatus taxa

Citation
Oren et al. (2020). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 70 (7)
Names
Ca. Methanosuratincola Ca. Methanosuratincola petrocarbonis Ca. Methanomethylicus oleisabuli Ca. Methanomethylicus mesodigestus Ca. Methanomethylicus Ca. Methanomethylicia “Cloacimonas” “Cloacimonas acidaminivorans” Ca. Izemoplasma acidinucleici Ca. Sulfuritelmatomonas Ca. Sulfuritelmatobacter Ca. Sulfuripaludibacter Kryptonium thompsonii Ts Ca. Caldarchaeum Ca. Methylumidiphilus alinenensis Ca. Altiarchaeum Ca. Carsonella ruddii Ca. Carsonella Ca. Methanofastidiosum methylothiophilum Ca. Methanofastidiosum Ca. Methanofastidiosia Ca. Fermentibacterales Ca. Fermentibacteraceae Ca. Fermentibacter Ca. Fermentibacter danicus Ca. Fermentibacteria Ca. Allofontibacter communis Ca. Allofontibacter
Subjects
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics General Medicine Microbiology
Abstract
We here present annotated lists of names of Candidatus taxa of prokaryotes with ranks between subspecies and class, proposed between the mid-1990s, when the provisional status of Candidatus taxa was first established, and the end of 2018. Where necessary, corrected names are proposed that comply with the current provisions of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes and its Orthography appendix. These lists, as well as updated lists of newly published names of Candidatus taxa with additions and corrections to the current lists to be published periodically in the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, may serve as the basis for the valid publication of the Candidatus names if and when the current proposals to expand the type material for naming of prokaryotes to also include gene sequences of yet-uncultivated taxa is accepted by the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes.

New globally distributed bacterial phyla within the FCB superphylum

Citation
Gong et al. (2022). Nature Communications 13 (1)
Names
“Blakebacteria” “Joyebacteria” “Arandabacterum” “Blakebacterales” “Joyebacterales” “Orphanbacterota” “Blakebacteraceae” “Joyebacteraceae” “Orphanbacteria” “Blakebacterum” “Joyebacterum” “Orphanbacterales” “Blakebacterum guaymasense” “Joyebacterum haimaense” “Orphanbacteraceae” “Blakebacterota” “Arandabacterum bohaiense” “Orphanbacterum” “Arandabacteria” “Arandabacterales” “Arandabacterota” “Arandabacteraceae” “Joyebacterota” “Orphanbacterum longqiense”
Subjects
General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology General Chemistry General Physics and Astronomy Multidisciplinary
Abstract
AbstractMicrobes in marine sediments play crucial roles in global carbon and nutrient cycling. However, our understanding of microbial diversity and physiology on the ocean floor is limited. Here, we use phylogenomic analyses of thousands of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from coastal and deep-sea sediments to identify 55 MAGs that are phylogenetically distinct from previously described bacterial phyla. We propose that these MAGs belong to 4 novel bacterial phyla (Blakebacterota, Orphanbacterota, Arandabacterota, and Joyebacterota) and a previously proposed phylum (AABM5-125-24), all of them within the FCB superphylum. Comparison of their rRNA genes with public databases reveals that these phyla are globally distributed in different habitats, including marine, freshwater, and terrestrial environments. Genomic analyses suggest these organisms are capable of mediating key steps in sedimentary biogeochemistry, including anaerobic degradation of polysaccharides and proteins, and respiration of sulfur and nitrogen. Interestingly, these genomes code for an unusually high proportion (~9% on average, up to 20% per genome) of protein families lacking representatives in public databases. Genes encoding hundreds of these protein families colocalize with genes predicted to be involved in sulfur reduction, nitrogen cycling, energy conservation, and degradation of organic compounds. Our findings advance our understanding of bacterial diversity, the ecological roles of these bacteria, and potential links between novel gene families and metabolic processes in the oceans.

An essential role for tungsten in the ecology and evolution of a previously uncultivated lineage of anaerobic, thermophilic Archaea

Citation
Buessecker et al. (2022). Nature Communications 13 (1)
Names
Wolframiiraptor allenii Wolframiiraptor sinensis Terraquivivens tikiterensis Ts Terraquivivens Geocrenenecus Benthortus Terraquivivens yellowstonensis Terraquivivens tengchongensis Terraquivivens ruidianensis Geocrenenecus huangii Geocrenenecus arthurdayi Geocrenenecus dongiae Ts Benthortus lauensis Ts Wolframiiraptoraceae Wolframiiraptor Wolframiiraptor gerlachensis Ts
Subjects
General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology General Chemistry General Physics and Astronomy Multidisciplinary
Abstract
AbstractTrace metals have been an important ingredient for life throughout Earth’s history. Here, we describe the genome-guided cultivation of a member of the elusive archaeal lineage Caldarchaeales (syn. Aigarchaeota), Wolframiiraptor gerlachensis, and its growth dependence on tungsten. A metagenome-assembled genome (MAG) of W. gerlachensis encodes putative tungsten membrane transport systems, as well as pathways for anaerobic oxidation of sugars probably mediated by tungsten-dependent ferredoxin oxidoreductases that are expressed during growth. Catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in-situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) show that W. gerlachensis preferentially assimilates xylose. Phylogenetic analyses of 78 high-quality Wolframiiraptoraceae MAGs from terrestrial and marine hydrothermal systems suggest that tungsten-associated enzymes were present in the last common ancestor of extant Wolframiiraptoraceae. Our observations imply a crucial role for tungsten-dependent metabolism in the origin and evolution of this lineage, and hint at a relic metabolic dependence on this trace metal in early anaerobic thermophiles.

Recoding of stop codons expands the metabolic potential of two novel Asgardarchaeota lineages

Citation
Sun et al. (2021). ISME Communications 1 (1)
Names
Ca. Sifarchaeota Ca. Sifarchaeum subterraneus Ca. Sifarchaeum marinoarchaea Ca. Sifarchaeum Ca. Borrarchaeum Ca. Borrarchaeaceae Ca. Jordarchaeia Ca. Sifarchaeia Ca. Jordarchaeales Ca. Sifarchaeales Ca. Jordarchaeaceae Ca. Sifarchaeaceae Ca. Jordarchaeum madagascariense Ca. Jordarchaeum Ca. Borrarchaeum weybense
Subjects
General Medicine
Abstract
AbstractAsgardarchaeota have been proposed as the closest living relatives to eukaryotes, and a total of 72 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) representing six primary lineages in this archaeal phylum have thus far been described. These organisms are predicted to be fermentative heterotrophs contributing to carbon cycling in sediment ecosystems. Here, we double the genomic catalogue of Asgardarchaeota by obtaining 71 MAGs from a range of habitats around the globe, including the deep subsurface, brackish shallow lakes, and geothermal spring sediments. Phylogenomic inferences followed by taxonomic rank normalisation confirmed previously established Asgardarchaeota classes and revealed four additional lineages, two of which were consistently recovered as monophyletic classes. We therefore propose the names Candidatus Sifarchaeia class nov. and Ca. Jordarchaeia class nov., derived from the gods Sif and Jord in Norse mythology. Metabolic inference suggests that both classes represent hetero-organotrophic acetogens, which also have the ability to utilise methyl groups such as methylated amines, with acetate as the probable end product in remnants of a methanogen-derived core metabolism. This inferred mode of energy conservation is predicted to be enhanced by genetic code expansions, i.e., stop codon recoding, allowing the incorporation of the rare 21st and 22nd amino acids selenocysteine (Sec) and pyrrolysine (Pyl). We found Sec recoding in Jordarchaeia and all other Asgardarchaeota classes, which likely benefit from increased catalytic activities of Sec-containing enzymes. Pyl recoding, on the other hand, is restricted to Sifarchaeia in the Asgardarchaeota, making it the first reported non-methanogenic archaeal lineage with an inferred complete Pyl machinery, likely providing members of this class with an efficient mechanism for methylamine utilisation. Furthermore, we identified enzymes for the biosynthesis of ester-type lipids, characteristic of bacteria and eukaryotes, in both newly described classes, supporting the hypothesis that mixed ether-ester lipids are a shared feature among Asgardarchaeota.

Valid publication of the names of forty-two phyla of prokaryotes

Citation
Oren, Garrity (2021). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 71 (10)
Names
Acidobacteriota Pseudomonadota Chloroflexota Actinomycetota Bacillus Bacillota Atribacter Atribacterota Armatimonas Aquifex Actinomyces Acidobacterium Myxococcota
Subjects
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics General Medicine Microbiology
Abstract
After the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (ICSP) had voted to include the rank of phylum in the rules of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP), and following publication of the decision in the IJSEM, we here present names and formal descriptions of 42 phyla to effect valid publication of their names, based on genera as the nomenclatural types.