One highly diverse phylogenetic group of Bacteria,
. Patescibacteria, remains poorly understood, but, from the few cultured representatives and metagenomic investigations, they are thought to live symbiotically or parasitically with other bacteria or even with eukarya.
A co-culture of a novel thermoacidophilic, obligate symbiotic archaeon, designated as strain MJ1T, with its specific host archaeon
strain MJ1HA was obtained from a terrestrial hot spring in Japan. Strain MJ1T grew in the co-culture under aerobic conditions. Coccoid cells of strain MJ1T were 200–500 nm in diameter, and attached to the MJ1HA cells in the co-culture. The ranges and optima of the growth temperature and pH of strain MJ1T in the co-culture were 60–75 °C (optimum, 65–70 °C) and pH 1.0–4.0 (optimum, pH 2.5), respectively. Core lipids of dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGT)−3 and GDGT-4 were highly abundant in MJ1T cells concentrated from the co-culture. Strain MJ1T has a small genome (0.67 Mbp) lacking genes for biosynthesis of essential biomolecules, such as nucleotides, lipids and ATP. The genomic DNA G+C content was 24.9 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain MJ1T was most closely related to that of the cultivated species, ‘Nanopusillus acidilobi’ strain N7A (85.8 % similarity). Based on phylogenetic and physiological characteristics, we propose the name Nanobdella aerobiophila gen. nov., sp. nov. to accommodate the strain MJ1T (=JCM 33616T=DSM 111728T). In addition, we propose the names Nanobdellaceae fam. nov., Nanobdellales ord. nov., and Nanobdellia class. nov. to accommodate the novel genus.
A survey of weeds was undertaken in a palm nursery affected by lethal bronzing (LB) to identify a reservoir host of the causal phytoplasma. Three common species were identified; Urochloa maxima (Guineagrass), Sporobolus indicus (smut grass), and Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge) and sampled over a period of 2 years. Each species was sampled 36 times and all three species were negative for the LB phytoplasma. However, three specimens of C. esculentus tested positive for the phytoplasma species ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense’. These findings represent the first documented case of ‘Ca. P. brasiliense’ in North America, specifically in Florida, U.S.A., as well as a new host record for the phytoplasma and the first monocot host documented. Because of the impact this phytoplasma has on papaya and hibiscus in South America, it presents a unique threat to ornamental and agricultural sectors in south Florida. An area-wide survey for the phytoplasma and potential vectors is recommended.
Health monitoring programs in animals used as experimental models are essential, since only disease-free subjects are considered suitable for research purposes. In laboratory-kept animals, hemoplasmas have been described as an important confounding variable. Different hemoplasma species have been detected infecting non-human primates (NHP) from Brazil. However, the occurrence of hemoplasma species in laboratory-kept NHP in Brazil has not-yet been assessed. Accordingly, this study aimed (i) to screen laboratory-kept rhesus monkeys for hemoplasmas, (ii) to verify if any of the hemoplasma-positive animals demonstrate hematological abnormalities, and (iii) to assess the genotype diversity of hemoplasma species in NHP from Brazil. Five out of eight (62.5%; 95% CI: 3.05–8.63) rhesus monkeys tested positive for hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. by PCR. Sequencing, phylogenetic, distance, and genotype diversity analyses of partial 16S rRNA gene demonstrate that rhesus monkeys were infected by ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haematomacacae’ (formerly ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomacaque’). Assessments of partial 16S rRNA diversity of hemoplasma species in NHP suggest that at least four genetically diverse groups may occur in Brazil. Although no hematological abnormalities were demonstrated in rhesus monkeys evaluated herein, future studies are needed to elucidate the influence of ‘Ca. M. haematomacacae’ as a confounding variable on research studies.
Here, we report draft genome sequences for nine strains of “
Nanosynbacter sp. HMT-352.” These strains and their sequences were used to interrogate strain-level variations in host range, gene content, and growth dynamics among the phylum “
Huanglongbing (otherwise known as HLB or greening) is currently the most devastating citrus disease worldwide. HLB is primarily associated with the phloem-inhabiting bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas). Currently, there are no citrus species resistant to CLas. Genetic transformation is one of the most effective approaches used to induce resistance against plant diseases. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have shown potential breakthroughs to improve resistance to bacterial diseases in plants. In this paper, we confirm the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Pera sweet orange expressing the AMP sarcotoxin IA (stx IA) gene isolated from the flesh fly Sarcophaga peregrina and its reaction to CLas, involving plant performance and fruit quality assessments. Four independent transgenic lines, STX-5, STX-11, STX-12, and STX-13, and a non-transgenic control, were graft-inoculated with CLas. Based on our findings, none of the transgenic plants were immune to CLas. However, the STX-5 and STX-11 lines showed reduced susceptibility to HLB with mild disease symptoms and low incidence of plants with the presence of CLas. Fruit and juice quality were not affected by the genetic transformation. Further, no residues of the sarcotoxin IA protein were found in the juice of the STX-11 and STX-12 fruits, though detected in the juice of the STX-5 and STX-13 lines, as revealed by the immunoblotting test. However, juices from all transgenic lines showed low traces of sarcotoxin IA peptide in its composition. The accumulation of this peptide did not cause any deleterious effects on plants or in fruit/juice. Our findings reinforce the challenges of identifying novel approaches to managing HLB.