AbstractTrace metals have been an important ingredient for life throughout Earth’s history. Here, we describe the genome-guided cultivation of a member of the elusive archaeal lineage Caldarchaeales (syn. Aigarchaeota), Wolframiiraptor gerlachensis, and its growth dependence on tungsten. A metagenome-assembled genome (MAG) of W. gerlachensis encodes putative tungsten membrane transport systems, as well as pathways for anaerobic oxidation of sugars probably mediated by tungsten-dependent ferredoxin oxidoreductases that are expressed during growth. Catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in-situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) show that W. gerlachensis preferentially assimilates xylose. Phylogenetic analyses of 78 high-quality Wolframiiraptoraceae MAGs from terrestrial and marine hydrothermal systems suggest that tungsten-associated enzymes were present in the last common ancestor of extant Wolframiiraptoraceae. Our observations imply a crucial role for tungsten-dependent metabolism in the origin and evolution of this lineage, and hint at a relic metabolic dependence on this trace metal in early anaerobic thermophiles.
After the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (ICSP) had voted to include the rank of phylum in the rules of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP), and following publication of the decision in the IJSEM, we here present names and formal descriptions of 42 phyla to effect valid publication of their names, based on genera as the nomenclatural types.
AbstractAsgardarchaeota have been proposed as the closest living relatives to eukaryotes, and a total of 72 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) representing six primary lineages in this archaeal phylum have thus far been described. These organisms are predicted to be fermentative heterotrophs contributing to carbon cycling in sediment ecosystems. Here, we double the genomic catalogue of Asgardarchaeota by obtaining 71 MAGs from a range of habitats around the globe, including the deep subsurface, brackish shallow lakes, and geothermal spring sediments. Phylogenomic inferences followed by taxonomic rank normalisation confirmed previously established Asgardarchaeota classes and revealed four additional lineages, two of which were consistently recovered as monophyletic classes. We therefore propose the names Candidatus Sifarchaeia class nov. and Ca. Jordarchaeia class nov., derived from the gods Sif and Jord in Norse mythology. Metabolic inference suggests that both classes represent hetero-organotrophic acetogens, which also have the ability to utilise methyl groups such as methylated amines, with acetate as the probable end product in remnants of a methanogen-derived core metabolism. This inferred mode of energy conservation is predicted to be enhanced by genetic code expansions, i.e., stop codon recoding, allowing the incorporation of the rare 21st and 22nd amino acids selenocysteine (Sec) and pyrrolysine (Pyl). We found Sec recoding in Jordarchaeia and all other Asgardarchaeota classes, which likely benefit from increased catalytic activities of Sec-containing enzymes. Pyl recoding, on the other hand, is restricted to Sifarchaeia in the Asgardarchaeota, making it the first reported non-methanogenic archaeal lineage with an inferred complete Pyl machinery, likely providing members of this class with an efficient mechanism for methylamine utilisation. Furthermore, we identified enzymes for the biosynthesis of ester-type lipids, characteristic of bacteria and eukaryotes, in both newly described classes, supporting the hypothesis that mixed ether-ester lipids are a shared feature among Asgardarchaeota.
comprises an ecologically and metabolically diverse group of bacteria best known for dissimilatory sulphate reduction and predatory behaviour. Although this lineage is the fourth described class of the phylum
, it rarely affiliates with other proteobacterial classes and is frequently not recovered as a monophyletic unit in phylogenetic analyses. Indeed, one branch of the class
encompassing Bdellovibrio-like predators was recently reclassified into a separate proteobacterial class, the
. Here we systematically explore the phylogeny of taxa currently assigned to these classes using 120 conserved single-copy marker genes as well as rRNA genes. The overwhelming majority of markers reject the inclusion of the classes
in the phylum
. Instead, the great majority of currently recognized members of the class
are better classified into four novel phylum-level lineages. We propose the names Desulfobacterota phyl. nov. and Myxococcota phyl. nov. for two of these phyla, based on the oldest validly published names in each lineage, and retain the placeholder name SAR324 for the third phylum pending formal description of type material. Members of the class
represent a separate phylum for which we propose the name Bdellovibrionota phyl. nov. based on priority in the literature and general recognition of the genus Bdellovibrio. Desulfobacterota phyl. nov. includes the taxa previously classified in the phylum
, and these reclassifications imply that the ability of sulphate reduction was vertically inherited in the
rather than laterally acquired as previously inferred. Our analysis also indicates the independent acquisition of predatory behaviour in the phyla Myxococcota and Bdellovibrionota, which is consistent with their distinct modes of action. This work represents a stable reclassification of one of the most taxonomically challenging areas of the bacterial tree and provides a robust framework for future ecological and systematic studies.
AbstractCandidatusParvarchaeales, representing a DPANN archaeal group with limited metabolic potentials and reliance on hosts for their growth, were initially found in acid mine drainage (AMD). Due to the lack of representatives, however, their ecological roles and adaptation to extreme habitats such as AMD, as well as how they diverge across the lineage remain largely unexplored. By applying genome-resolved metagenomics, 28Parvarchaeales-associated metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) representing two orders and five genera were recovered. Among them, we identified three new genera and proposed the namesCandidatusJingweiarchaeum,CandidatusHaiyanarchaeum, andCandidatusRehaiarchaeum with the former two belonging to a new orderCandidatusJingweiarchaeales. Further analyses of metabolic potentials revealed substantial niche differentiation between Jingweiarchaeales and Parvarchaeales. Jingweiarchaeales may rely on fermentation, salvage pathways, partial glycolysis, and pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) for energy reservation, while the metabolic potentials of Parvarchaeales might be more versatile. Comparative genomic analyses suggested that Jingweiarchaeales are more favorable to habitats with higher temperatures andParvarchaealesare better adapted to acidic environments. We further revealed that the thermal adaptation of these lineages especially for Haiyanarchaeum might rely on innate genomic features such as the usage of specific amino acids, genome streamlining, and hyperthermal featured genes such asrgy. Notably, the acidic adaptation of Parvarchaeales was possibly driven by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Reconstruction of ancestral states demonstrated that both may originate from thermal and neutral environments and later spread to mesothermal and acidic environments. These evolutionary processes may also be accompanied by adaptation toward oxygen-rich environments via HGT.ImportanceCandidatusParvarchaeales may represent a lineage uniquely distributed in extreme environments such as AMD and hot springs. However, little is known about the strategies and processes of how they adapted to these extreme environments. By the discovery of potential new order-level lineages - Jingweiarchaeales and in-depth comparative genomic analysis, we unveiled the functional differentiation of these lineages. Further, we show that the adaptation to high-temperature and acidic environments of these lineages was driven by different strategies, with the prior relying more on innate genomic characteristics and the latter more on the acquisition of genes associated with acid tolerance. Finally, by reconstruction of ancestral states of OGT andpI, we showed the potential evolutionary process of Parvarchaeales-related lineages with regard to the shift from a high-temperature environment of their common ancestors to low-temperature (potentially acidic) environments.
AbstractMarine sediments comprise one of the largest environments on the planet, and their microbial inhabitants are significant players in global carbon and nutrient cycles. Recent studies using metagenomic techniques have shown the complexity of these communities and identified novel microorganisms from the ocean floor. Here, we obtained 77 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from the bacterial phylum Armatimonadota in the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California, and the Bohai Sea, China. These MAGs comprise two previously undescribed classes within Armatimonadota, which we propose naming Hebobacteria and Zipacnadia. They are globally distributed in hypoxic and anoxic environments and are dominant members of deep-sea sediments (up to 1.95% of metagenomic raw reads). The classes described here also have unique metabolic capabilities, possessing pathways to reduce carbon dioxide to acetate via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (WLP) and generating energy through the oxidative branch of glycolysis using carbon dioxide as an electron sink, maintaining the redox balance using the WLP. Hebobacteria may also be autotrophic, not previously identified in Armatimonadota. Furthermore, these Armatimonadota may play a role in sulfur and nitrogen cycling, using the intermediate compounds hydroxylamine and sulfite. Description of these MAGs enhances our understanding of diversity and metabolic potential within anoxic habitats worldwide.