After the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (ICSP) had voted to include the rank of phylum in the rules of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP), and following publication of the decision in the IJSEM, we here present names and formal descriptions of 42 phyla to effect valid publication of their names, based on genera as the nomenclatural types.
Huanglongbing (HLB) disease, also known as citrus greening disease, was first reported in the US in 2005. Since then, the disease has decimated the citrus industry in Florida, resulting in billions of dollars in crop losses and the destruction of thousands of acres of citrus groves. The causative agent of citrus greening disease is the phloem limited pathogen Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. As it has not been cultured, very little is known about the structural biology of the organism. Liberibacter are part of the Rhizobiaceae family, which includes nitrogen-fixing symbionts of legumes as well as the Agrobacterium plant pathogens. To better understand the Liberibacter genus, a closely related culturable bacterium (Liberibacter crescens or Lcr) has attracted attention as a model organism for structural and functional genomics of Liberibacters. Given that the structure of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria plays a crucial role in mediating host-pathogen interactions, we sought to characterize the LPS from Lcr. We found that the major lipid A component of the LPS consisted of a pentaacylated molecule with a β-6-GlcN disaccharide backbone lacking phosphate. The polysaccharide portion of the LPS was unusual compared to previously described members of the Rhizobiaceae family in that it contained ribofuranosyl residues. The LPS structure presented here allows us to extrapolate known LPS structure/function relationships to members of the Liberibacter genus which cannot yet be cultured. It also offers insights into the biology of the organism and how they manage to effectively attack citrus trees.
The status Candidatus was introduced to bacterial taxonomy in the 1990s to accommodate uncultured taxa defined by analyses of DNA sequences. Here I review the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) associated with the status Candidatus in the light of a quarter century of use, twinned with recent developments in bacterial taxonomy and sequence-based taxonomic discovery. Despite ambiguities as to its scope, philosophical objections to its use and practical problems in implementation, the status Candidatus has now been applied to over 1000 taxa and has been widely adopted by journals and databases. Although lacking priority under the International Code for Nomenclature of Prokaryotes, many Candidatus names have already achieved de facto standing in the academic literature and in databases via description of a taxon in a peer-reviewed publication, alongside deposition of a genome sequence and there is a clear path to valid publication of such names on culture. Continued and increased use of Candidatus names provides an alternative to the potential upheaval that might accompany creation of a new additional code of nomenclature and provides a ready solution to the urgent challenge of naming many thousands of newly discovered but uncultured species.
Many biotechnological applications deal with nitrification, one of the main steps of the global nitrogen cycle. The biological oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and further to nitrate is critical to avoid environmental damage and its functioning has to be retained even under adverse conditions. Bacteria performing the second reaction, oxidation of nitrite to nitrate, are fastidious microorganisms that are highly sensitive against disturbances. One important finding with relevance for nitrogen removal systems was the discovery of the mainly cold-adapted Cand. Nitrotoga, whose activity seems to be essential for the recovery of nitrite oxidation in wastewater treatment plants at low temperatures, e.g., during cold seasons. Several new strains of this genus have been recently described and ecophysiologically characterized including genome analyses. With increasing diversity, also mesophilic Cand. Nitrotoga representatives have been detected in activated sludge. This review summarizes the natural distribution and driving forces defining niche separation in artificial nitrification systems. Further critical aspects for the competition with Nitrospira and Nitrobacter are discussed. Knowledge about the physiological capacities and limits of Cand. Nitrotoga can help to define physico-chemical parameters for example in reactor systems that need to be run at low temperatures.
• Characterization of the psychrotolerant nitrite oxidizer Cand. Nitrotoga
• Comparison of the physiological features of Cand. Nitrotoga with those of other NOB
• Identification of beneficial environmental/operational parameters for proliferation
An intracellular bacterium, strain IAST, was observed to infect several species of the plant-parasitic nematode genus Xiphinema (Xiphinema astaregiense, Xiphinema incertum, Xiphinema madeirense, Xiphinema pachtaicum, Xiphinema parapachydermum and Xiphinema vallense). The bacterium could not be recovered on axenic medium. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of IAST was found to be new, being related to the family Burkholderiaceae, class Betaproteobacteria. Fungal endosymbionts
B1-EBT (92.9 % sequence identity) and ‘Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum’ BEG34 (89.8 % identity) are the closest taxa and form a separate phylogenetic clade inside Burkholderiaceae. Other genes (atpD, lepA and recA) also separated this species from its closest relatives using a multilocus sequence analysis approach. These genes were obtained using a partial genome of this bacterium. The localization of the bacterium (via light and fluorescence in situ hybridization microscopy) is in the X. pachtaicum females clustered around the developing oocytes, primarily found embedded inside the epithelial wall cells of the ovaries, from where they are dispersed in the intestine. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations supported the presence of bacteria inside the nematode body, where they occupy ovaries and occur inside the intestinal epithelium. Ultrastructural analysis of the bacterium showed cells that appear as mostly irregular, slightly curved rods with rounded ends, 0.8–1.2 µm wide and 2.5–6.0 µm long, possessing a typical Gram-negative cell wall. The peptidoglycan layer is, however, evident only occasionally and not detectable by TEM in most cells. Another irregularly occurring shell surrounding the endosymbiont cells or the cell clusters was also revealed, probably originating from the host cell membrane. Flagella or spore-like cells do not occur and the nucleoid is diffusely distributed throughout the cell. This endosymbiont is transmitted vertically through nematode generations. These results support the proposal of IAST as a new species, although its obligate intracellular and obligate endosymbiont nature prevented isolation of a definitive type strain. Strain IAST is therefore proposed as representing ‘Candidatus Xiphinematincola pachtaicus’ gen. nov., sp. nov.
Serious disease outbreaks in cattle are usually associated with blood pathogens. This study aims to detect blood pathogens namely Theileria species, Anaplasma species, Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos and Trypanosoma evansi, and determine their phylogenetic relationships and haemato-biochemical abnormalities in naturally infected cattle.
Molecular analysis was achieved by PCR amplification and sequencing of PCR amplicons of 18SrRNA gene of Theileria species, 16SrRNA genes of Anaplasma and Mycoplasma species, MPSP genes of T. orientalis and T. sinensis, MSP4 gene of A. marginale, 16SrRNA gene of Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos, and RoTat1.2 VSG gene of Trypanosoma evansi, in sixty-one (61) clinically ill Kedah-Kelantan x Brahman cattle in Pahang, Malaysia.
A total of 44 (72.13%) cattle were infected with more than one blood pathogen. Theileria species was the blood pathogen with the highest molecular detection rate (72.13, 95% CI 59.83–81.81%). Nucleotide blast analyses of all sequences demonstrated high degree of molecular similarity (98–100%) in comparison with their respective reference sequences. Analysis of 18SrRNA gene sequences of Theileria species and 16SrRNA gene sequences of Anaplasma species revealed Theileria sinensis and Anaplasma platys respectively as additional species detected in these cattle. MPSP-PCR analysis was conducted for further confirmation of T. sinensis. The blood picture of eight infected cattle groups revealed poikilocytosis, anisocytosis, rouleaux formation and degenerative left shift. High mean erythrocyte fragility values were common in infected cattle groups. Anaemia of the macrocytic normochromic type and spherocytes were observed in the T. evansi and Anaplasma platys + Theileria sinensis double species co-infected cattle group. Normocytic normochromic anaemia was observed in the T. sinensis infected cattle group. Significant (p < 0.05) increases in serum liver and kidney parameters, total protein, globulin, total and unconjugated bilirubin and decreased albumin values were observed in the T. evansi infected cattle when compared to clinically healthy cattle.
We present the first evidence of Theileria sinensis-associated bovine anaemia (TSABA) in Malaysian cattle. Because of the high occurrence of bovine theileriosis and detection of A. platys, there is an urgent need for appropriate preventive and control measures against these blood pathogens.