Diaphorina citri is the hemipteran pest and vector of a devastating bacterial pathogen of citrus worldwide. In addition to the two core bacterial endosymbionts of D. citri, Candidatus Carsonella ruddii and Candidatus Profftella armatura, the genome of a novel endosymbiont and as of yet undescribed microbe was discovered in a Hawaiian D. citri population through deep sequencing of multiple D. citri populations. Found to be closely related to the genus
in the family
by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, it forms a sister clade along with other insect-associated 16S rRNA gene sequences from uncultured bacterium found associated with Aedes koreicus and Sogatella furcifera. Multilocus sequence analysis confirmed the phylogenetic placement sister to the
clade. Despite the culturable
clade being the closest phylogenetic neighbour, attempts to culture this newly identified bacterial endosymbiont were unsuccessful. On the basis of these distinct genetic differences, the novel endosymbiont is proposed to be classified into a candidate genus and species ‘Candidatus Kirkpatrickella diaphorinae’. The full genome was deposited in GenBank (accession number CP107052; prokaryotic 16S rRNA OP600170).
AbstractVisible surface films, termed slicks, can extensively cover freshwater and marine ecosystems, with coastal regions being particularly susceptible to their presence. The sea-surface microlayer (SML), the upper 1-mm at the air-water interface in slicks (herein slick SML) harbors a distinctive bacterial community, but generally little is known about SML viruses. Using flow cytometry, metagenomics, and cultivation, we characterized viruses and bacteria in a brackish slick SML in comparison to non-slick SML as well as seawater below slick and non-slick areas (subsurface water = SSW). Size-fractionated filtration of all samples distinguished viral attachment to hosts and particles. The slick SML contained higher abundances of virus-like particles, prokaryotic cells, and dissolved organic carbon compared to non-slick SML and SSW. The community of 428 viral operational taxonomic units (vOTUs), 426 predicted as lytic, distinctly differed across all size fractions in the slick SML compared to non-slick SML and SSW. Specific metabolic profiles of bacterial metagenome-assembled genomes and isolates in the slick SML included a prevalence of genes encoding motility and carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). Several vOTUs were enriched in slick SML, and many virus variants were associated with particles. Nine vOTUs were only found in slick SML, six of them being targeted by slick SML-specific clustered-regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) spacers likely originating from Gammaproteobacteria. Moreover, isolation of three previously unknown lytic phages for Alishewanella sp. and Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, abundant and actively replicating slick SML bacteria, suggests that viral activity in slicks contributes to biogeochemical cycling in coastal ecosystems.
Two metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), GKL-01 and GKL-02, related to the family Thiotrichaceae have been assembled from the metagenome of bacterial mat obtained from a sulfide-rich thermal spring in the North Caucasus. Based on average amino acid identity (AAI) values and genome-based phylogeny, MAG GKL-01 represented a new genus within the Thiotrichaceae family. The GC content of the GKL-01 DNA (44%) differed significantly from that of other known members of the genus Thiothrix (50.1–55.6%). We proposed to assign GKL-01 to a new species and genus ‘Candidatus Thiocaldithrix dubininis’ gen. nov., sp. nov. GKL-01. The phylogenetic analysis and estimated distances between MAG GKL-02 and the genomes of the previously described species of the genus Thiothrix allowed assigning GKL-02 to a new species with the proposed name ‘Candidatus Thiothrix putei’ sp. nov. GKL-02 within the genus Thiothrix. Genome data first revealed the presence of both Na+-ATPases and H+-ATPases in several Thiothrix species. According to genomic analysis, bacteria GKL-01 and GKL-02 are metabolically versatile facultative aerobes capable of growing either chemolithoautotrophically or chemolithoheterotrophically in the presence of hydrogen sulfide and/or thiosulfate or chemoorganoheterotrophically.