As hemp (Cannabis sativa) emerges as a commercial crop in Nevada, mild to severe abnormal growth has been observed from many plants in commercial fields throughout the growing season. Affected plants exhibited a group of symptoms typically including stunting, leaf yellowing, excessive apical branching, clusters of Witches’ broom, leaf rolling upwards, and leaf mottling and mosaic. These symptoms mostly showed up together in a plant or a crop and are defined here as abnormal growth syndrome (AGS). Between 2017-2019, the Nevada State Plant Pathology and Molecular Diagnostic Lab received 67 symptomatic hemp samples from Nevada for diagnosis, and Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii was detected in 14 samples (21%). To further investigate additional biotic agents associated with the AGS, PCR products generated by primers P1/P7 were cloned into pGEM®-T vector and sequenced, and Spiroplasma citri DNAs were found in 2 samples (3%). All 67 DNA samples were further tested for Beet curly top virus (BCTV), and 57 samples (85%) were found to be infected by BCTV. Twelve samples (18%) were co-infected by both C. Phytoplasma trifolii and BCTV, and two (3%) were co-infected by S. citri, C. Phytoplasma trifolii, and BCTV. The findings suggest that BCTV is the most prevalent pathogen causing the hemp abnormal growth in Nevada, but C. Phytoplasma trifolii and S. citri may also contribute to the severity and complexity of symptoms. Thus, hemp abnormal growth can be attributed to single, dual, or triple infections of these three leafhopper-vectored mollicutes and virus.
Phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) is an unusual membrane phospholipid present in some endosymbiotic and intracellular pathogenic prokaryotes. ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) is a phloem-limited, uncultured, fastidious α-Proteobacterium associated with the devastating citrus “greening” disease (Huanglongbing). Phylogenetically related but nonpathogenic L. crescens (Lcr) was used as a culturable surrogate to examine PtdCho biosynthesis in pathogenic CLas. Genes encoding key enzymes for two alternative PtdCho biosynthetic routes are present in the Lcr genome, viz. the one-step CDP-choline (pcs-encoding phosphatidylcholine synthase) and the three-step methyl-transferase pathway (pmt-encoding phospholipid N-methyltransferase). However, only the CDP-choline pathway genes for incorporating exogenous Cho were identified in the CLas genome. Exogenous Cho enhanced growth and alleviated osmotic stress in wild-type Lcr and in the pmt insertion mutant strains when cultured in sugar-rich medium. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses confirmed active uptake and condensation of nutritional Cho into PtdCho by CLas in both its plant host and psyllid vector. CLas-infected grapefruit leaves showed transcriptional activation of Cho biosynthesis genes and 2.8-fold higher levels of Cho. In plant cells, the compatible osmolyte glycine-betaine (GlyBet) is also derived from Cho. Expression of GlyBet biosynthesis genes and the GlyBet content was similar in both CLas-infected and healthy leaf tissue. The data presented here suggest that CLas likely exploits the Cho biosynthetic pathway in citrus hosts to expand the nutritional Cho pool.
Huanglongbing (HLB), caused by the Candidatus Liberibacter spp., is the most devastating disease in the citrus industry. HLB significantly affects and alters the microbial community structure or potential function of the microbial community of leaves and roots. However, it is unknown how the microbial community structure of the pericarp with different pigments is affected by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). This study identified the enriched taxa of the microbial community in the citrus pericarp with normal or abnormal pigment and determine the effects of HLB on the pericarp microbial community using 16S rRNA-seq. The alpha and beta diversity and composition of microbial communities were significantly different between normal and abnormal pigment pericarp tissues of ripe fruits infected by CLas. Firmicutes, Actinobacteriota, Bacteroidota, Acidobacteriota, and Desulfobacterota dominated the pericarp microbiota composition in WDYFs (whole dark yellow fruits) samples. The relative abundance of most genera in WDYFs was higher than 1%, such as Burkholderia, and Pelomonas. However, with the exception of the HLB pathogen, the relative abundance of most genera in the abnormal-colored pericarp samples was less than 1%. CLas decreased the relative abundance of pericarp taxonomic. The predicted function of microbial was more plentiful and functional properties in the WDYF sample, such as translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis, amino acid transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, and some other clusters of orthologous groups (COG) except for cell motility. The results of this study offer novel insights into understanding the composition of microbial communities of the CLas-affected citrus pericarps and contribute to the development of biological control strategies for citrus against Huanglongbing.
AbstractMarine sediments comprise one of the largest environments on the planet, and their microbial inhabitants are significant players in global carbon and nutrient cycles. Recent studies using metagenomic techniques have shown the complexity of these communities and identified novel microorganisms from the ocean floor. Here, we obtained 77 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from the bacterial phylum Armatimonadota in the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California, and the Bohai Sea, China. These MAGs comprise two previously undescribed classes within Armatimonadota, which we propose naming Hebobacteria and Zipacnadia. They are globally distributed in hypoxic and anoxic environments and are dominant members of deep-sea sediments (up to 1.95% of metagenomic raw reads). The classes described here also have unique metabolic capabilities, possessing pathways to reduce carbon dioxide to acetate via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (WLP) and generating energy through the oxidative branch of glycolysis using carbon dioxide as an electron sink, maintaining the redox balance using the WLP. Hebobacteria may also be autotrophic, not previously identified in Armatimonadota. Furthermore, these Armatimonadota may play a role in sulfur and nitrogen cycling, using the intermediate compounds hydroxylamine and sulfite. Description of these MAGs enhances our understanding of diversity and metabolic potential within anoxic habitats worldwide.
AbstractCandidatus Branchiomonas cysticola is recognized as the most prevalent bacterial agent causing epitheliocystis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Based on its partial 16S rRNA sequence, the bacterium has previously been found to be a member of Burkholderiales in the class Betaproteobacteria. Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) of the bacterium and 60 type strains of Betaproteobacteria using newly identified housekeeping genes (dnaK, rpoC, and fusA) and ribosomal subunit sequences (16S and 23S), instead supported the bacterium’s affiliation to Nitrosomodales. Taxonomic rank normalization by Relative Evolutionary Divergence (RED) showed the phylogenetic distinction between Cand. B. cysticola and its closest related type strain to be at the family level. A novel bacterial family named Branchiomonaceae has thus been proposed to include a monophyletic clade of Betaproteobacteria exclusively associated with epitheliocystis in fish.
CVPD disease (Huanglongbing) is the most severe citrus disease caused by the bacterium Cand. Liberibacter asiaticus. This pathogen lives in the phloem tissue of citrus plants and is transmitted through the vector Diaphorina citri and by grafting. The study aimed to know the presence of CVPD disease in Orange cv Selayar nurseries and mother tree gardens in the Selayar Islands Regency. The PCR test was carried out in the research using the Laboratory of Agricultural Biotechnology, Hasanuddin University. The DNA of the citrus leaves was extracted using the Genomic DNA Kit method and the DNA CLas was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the primer pairs OI1-O12c. The results showed that the percentage of mother plants of orange cv. Selayar infected with CVPD-like symptoms were 10-21 %. The percentage of citrus seedlings with CVPD-like symptoms in 2 nurseries were 0.27% and 0.09%. The symptoms of CVPD disease have been confirmed using a PCR technique, which was successful in amplifying the DNA fragment of CLa measuring 1160 bp, although not all symptoms suspected of CVPD are confirmed positive.
Huanglongbing, a globally devastating citrus disease, is associated with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and is mainly transmitted by Diaphorina citri. Verification of the distribution and dynamics of CLas in D. citri is critical to understanding CLas transmitted by vectors in nature. Here, the distribution and titers of CLas in different sexes and tissues of D. citri adults were investigated by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results showed that CLas had widespread distribution in the brain, salivary glands, digestive system, and reproductive system of both females and males, indicating a systemic infection of CLas in D. citri. Moreover, CLas fluorescence intensity and titers were significantly increased in both the digestive system and the female reproductive system with development and there was a marked decreased in both the salivary glands and the male brain, but there was no significant change in the female brain or the male reproductive system. Furthermore, the distribution and dynamics of CLas in embryos and nymphs were investigated. CLas was observed in all laid eggs and subsequent first–second-instar nymphs, indicating that a high percentage of embryos and nymphs resulting from infected D. citri mothers were infected with CLas.