It has been nearly 100 years since citrus growers in two distinct regions in the northern provinces of South Africa noticed unusual symptoms in their citrus trees, causing significant crop losses. They had no idea that these symptoms would later become part of an almost global pandemic of a disease called greening or huanglongbing (HLB). The rapid spread of the disease indicated that it might be caused by a transmissible pathogen, but it took >50 years to identify the causative agent as ‘Candidatus Liberibacter africanus’. Recently, the disease appeared in more African countries, spreading by both infected planting material and Trioza erytreae. To date, five ‘Ca. L. africanus’ subspecies have been identified in various rutaceous species, with ‘Ca. L. africanus subsp. clausenae’ the only subspecies for which a biovar was detected in citrus. Efforts to detect and differentiate HLB-causing Liberibacter species are ongoing, and recent developments are discussed here. This review focuses on aspects of the African form of HLB, including its specific bacterial species and subspecies, its main insect vector, its geographic distribution, and current management strategies.