Agronomy and Crop Science


Publications (696)

Acquisition and transmission of “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” differs among Wolbachia-infected and -uninfected haplotypes of Bactericera cockerelli

Citation
Cooper et al. (2023). Plant Disease
Names
“Liberibacter solanacearum”
Subjects
Agronomy and Crop Science Plant Science
Abstract
“Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” (Lso) causes disease symptoms and economic losses in potato, tomato, and other solanaceous crops in North America. Lso is transmitted to plants by potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, which occurs as distinct haplotypes named western, central, and northwestern that differ in presence or absence of the bacterial endosymbiont, Wolbachia. Previous work showed that all three vector haplotypes can transmit Lso, but it was not clear whether acquisition and transmission rates of Lso were equal among the haplotypes. The goal of our study was to compare Lso infection rates among psyllids of the western, central, and northwestern haplotypes. Using data collected from several years of periodic testing of Lso infection of laboratory-reared potato psyllid colonies, we showed that psyllids of the western and central haplotypes are more likely to harbor Lso than are psyllids of the northwestern haplotype. We then used greenhouse assays to demonstrate that psyllids of the northwestern haplotype are less likely to acquire and transmit Lso compared with those of the western haplotype. Lso infection rates corresponded with Wolbachia infection among the three psyllid haplotypes. The Wolbachia-infected central and western haplotypes were more likely to harbor and transmit Lso compared with the Wolbachia-free northwestern haplotype. Results demonstrate that potato psyllids of the western and central haplotypes pose a greater risk for spread of Lso in crops and suggest a pattern between infection with Lso and Wolbachia in potato psyllid.

Response of carrot seed germination to heat treatment, the emergency measure to reduce the risk of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ seed transmission

Citation
TIZZANI et al. (2023). Phytopathologia Mediterranea 61 (3)
Names
“Liberibacter solanacearum”
Subjects
Agronomy and Crop Science Horticulture Plant Science
Abstract
In Europe and the Mediterranean region, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) is associated with emerging diseases of Apiaceae crops, mainly carrot. Emergency measures for import of carrot seed were set, requiring seed to be heat-treated at 50°C or tested as Lso-negative by PCR. The germination response to heat treatment was assessed for 24 carrot cultivar and hybrid seed lots. Ten parsley, five fennel, and two celery seed lots were also analysed. Of these 41 seed lots, 21 were Lso-infected. Water heat treatment significantly decreased germinability compared to dry heat treatment, indicating that dry heat treatment is a cheaper and less detrimental procedure. However, the dry heat treatment significantly decreased seed germination compared to untreated controls in four of 24 seed lots of carrot, four of ten parsley seed lots, three of five fennel seed lots, and one of two celery seed lots. For parsley, the heat treatment reduced germinability to a lesser extent in Lso-infected than Lso-free seed lots. These data show that heat treatment can affect the germination of Apiaceae seeds to varying degrees, depending on species or variety, the type of heat treatment, and the sanitary status of the seeds.

Detection of ‘Candidatus Phythoplasma prunorum’ in Apricot Trees and its Associated Psyllid Samples

Citation
Koncz et al. (2023). Agronomy 13 (1)
Names
Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum Ca. Phythoplasma prunorum
Subjects
Agronomy and Crop Science
Abstract
‘Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum’ is causing ever increasing economic losses through the decline of apricot trees in European countries, e.g., Hungary. In this study, the pathogen was identified from plant tissues and insects by nested-PCR. The insect species were identified via morphology and molecular methods. The incidence of the pathogen was 29.6% in randomly selected apricot trees. Most of the infected trees with symptoms died within a year. These results show that phytoplasma is significantly present and causes damage in the investigated plantations. The only known insect vector of this phytoplasma is the plum psyllid, Cacopsylla pruni, which was regularly encountered in the sampled apricot orchards and in their surroundings. In a two-year study, several adults among the sampled specimens were observed to be infected by the pathogen. This observation further confirms the role of the plum psyllid in vectoring the phytoplasma. All the sampled plum psyllid adults belonged to the ‘B’ biotype. Besides C. pruni, Cacopsylla crataegi was abundant in the samples. Several adults of the latter species were also infected by the pathogen ‘Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum’. The rates of occurrence of this phytoplasma in male and female adults of the two psyllid species appeared to be similar. The examined C. crataegi individuals showed genetic differences from each other and from specimens included in a previous investigation.

Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to detect the potato zebra chip pathogen ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) and differentiate haplotypes A and B.

Citation
Jiang et al. (2022). Plant Disease
Names
“Liberibacter solanacearum”
Subjects
Agronomy and Crop Science Plant Science
Abstract
Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (Lso) is the causal agent of zebra chip of potato (Solanum tuberosum), which can significantly reduce potato yield. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the detection of Lso haplotypes A and B was developed and evaluated. Two sets of LAMP primers named LAMP-A and LAMP-B were designed and tested for specificity and sensitivity. Both LAMP-A and LAMP-B were specific to Lso in in silico analysis using the Primer-Blast tool. The LAMP-A and LAMP-B could only produce positive signal from DNA mixtures of Lso-infected tomato but not from the genomic DNA of 37 non-target plant pathogens. The sensitivity of LAMP-A and LAMP-B on Lso haplotypes A and B were tested on gBlocks and genomic DNA from Lso-infected tomato. On the genomic DNA, for LAMP-A, the lowest amount of template DNA for a positive LAMP reaction was 2 to 20 ng on four haplotype A strains and 20 to 80 ng on four haplotype B strains; for LAMP-B, the lowest amount of template DNA for a positive LAMP reaction was 0.02 to 2 ng on four haplotype B strains and 20 ng to no amplification on four haplotype A strains. On gBlocks, for LAMP-A, the lowest number of copies for a positive LAMP reaction was 60 on haplotype A and 600 on haplotype B; for LAMP-B, the lowest number of copies for a positive LAMP reaction was 60 on haplotype B and 600 on haplotype A. Therefore, considering the convenience of the LAMP technique, as well as the high specificity and sensitivity, the LAMP-A and LAMP-B primers can be used together to test the probable Lso-infected plant or psyllid samples to rapidly, accurately and directly differentiate haplotypes A and B. We highly recommend this LAMP system to plant pathology practitioners and diagnostic labs for routine detection of Lso and confirmation of zebra chip disease on potato or tomato.