AbstractRecent outbreaks of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ resulted in severe losses in potatoes, vegetable crops and grapevines in certain regions of Austria and constituted a major challenge for seed potato production. Therefore, the effects of various insecticides and insect deterrents on pathogen spread were studied both in laboratory and field experiments from 2018 to 2021. In laboratory transmission experiments, field captured Hyalesthes obsoletus were caged on differently treated Catharanthus roseus for five days. The insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, acetamiprid and chlorpyriphos showed the most rapid impact on insect survival and fully prevented phytoplasma transmission. The particle film forming products kaolin and diatomaceous earth had some effect. A transfer of the promising laboratory results to potato fields, however, was achieved to a limited extent only. Treatments with pyrethroids and acetamiprid every 8–10 days over the flight period of H. obsoletus roughly halved the number of symptomatic plants and tubers in case of moderately susceptible varieties and moderate infection pressure. In the event of susceptible varieties and high disease pressure, treatment effects were hardy discernible. In practical terms, the experiments indicate that insecticide applications alone are not sufficient to mitigate the disease. Spraying of diatomaceous earth and mineral oil did not affect disease incidence in the field.
Bacterial cells can vary greatly in size, from a few hundred nanometers to hundreds of micrometers in diameter. Filamentous cable bacteria also display substantial size differences, with filament diameters ranging from 0.4 to 8 µm. We analyzed the genomes of cable bacterium filaments from 11 coastal environments of which the resulting 23 new genomes represent 10 novel species-level clades of
Electrothrix and two clades that putatively represent novel genus-level diversity. Fluorescence
hybridization with a species-level probe showed that large-sized cable bacteria belong to a novel species with the proposed name
. Electrothrix gigas. Comparative genome analysis suggests genes that play a role in the construction or functioning of large cable bacteria cells: the genomes of
. Electrothrix gigas encode a novel actin-like protein as well as a species-specific gene cluster encoding four putative pilin proteins and a putative type II secretion platform protein, which are not present in other cable bacteria. The novel actin-like protein was also found in a number of other giant bacteria, suggesting there could be a genetic basis for large cell size. This actin-like protein (denoted big bacteria protein, Bbp) may have a function analogous to other actin proteins in cell structure or intracellular transport. We contend that Bbp may help overcome the challenges of diffusion limitation and/or morphological complexity presented by the large cells of
. Electrothrix gigas and other giant bacteria.
In this study, we substantially expand the known diversity of marine cable bacteria and describe cable bacteria with a large diameter as a novel species with the proposed name
Electrothrix gigas. In the genomes of this species, we identified a gene that encodes a novel actin-like protein [denoted big bacteria protein (Bbp)]. The
gene was also found in a number of other giant bacteria, predominantly affiliated to Desulfobacterota and Gammaproteobacteria, indicating that there may be a genetic basis for large cell size. Thus far, mostly structural adaptations of giant bacteria, vacuoles, and other inclusions or organelles have been observed, which are employed to overcome nutrient diffusion limitation in their environment. In analogy to other actin proteins, Bbp could fulfill a structural role in the cell or potentially facilitate intracellular transport.
The complete genome sequence of “
Phytoplasma pruni” strain PR2021, which consists of one 705,138 bp circular chromosome and one 4,757 bp circular plasmid, is presented in this work. This bacterium is associated with poinsettia (
) cultivar “Princettia Pink.”
The genomes of obligate bacterial co-symbionts of the green rice leafhopper
, which is notorious as an agricultural pest, were determined. The streamlined genomes of “
Sulcia muelleri” and “
Nasuia deltocephalinicola” exhibited complementary metabolic pathways for synthesizing essential nutrients that contribute to host adaptation.
AbstractVisible surface films, termed slicks, can extensively cover freshwater and marine ecosystems, with coastal regions being particularly susceptible to their presence. The sea-surface microlayer (SML), the upper 1-mm at the air-water interface in slicks (herein slick SML) harbors a distinctive bacterial community, but generally little is known about SML viruses. Using flow cytometry, metagenomics, and cultivation, we characterized viruses and bacteria in a brackish slick SML in comparison to non-slick SML as well as seawater below slick and non-slick areas (subsurface water = SSW). Size-fractionated filtration of all samples distinguished viral attachment to hosts and particles. The slick SML contained higher abundances of virus-like particles, prokaryotic cells, and dissolved organic carbon compared to non-slick SML and SSW. The community of 428 viral operational taxonomic units (vOTUs), 426 predicted as lytic, distinctly differed across all size fractions in the slick SML compared to non-slick SML and SSW. Specific metabolic profiles of bacterial metagenome-assembled genomes and isolates in the slick SML included a prevalence of genes encoding motility and carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). Several vOTUs were enriched in slick SML, and many virus variants were associated with particles. Nine vOTUs were only found in slick SML, six of them being targeted by slick SML-specific clustered-regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) spacers likely originating from Gammaproteobacteria. Moreover, isolation of three previously unknown lytic phages for Alishewanella sp. and Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, abundant and actively replicating slick SML bacteria, suggests that viral activity in slicks contributes to biogeochemical cycling in coastal ecosystems.
Two metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), GKL-01 and GKL-02, related to the family Thiotrichaceae have been assembled from the metagenome of bacterial mat obtained from a sulfide-rich thermal spring in the North Caucasus. Based on average amino acid identity (AAI) values and genome-based phylogeny, MAG GKL-01 represented a new genus within the Thiotrichaceae family. The GC content of the GKL-01 DNA (44%) differed significantly from that of other known members of the genus Thiothrix (50.1–55.6%). We proposed to assign GKL-01 to a new species and genus ‘Candidatus Thiocaldithrix dubininis’ gen. nov., sp. nov. GKL-01. The phylogenetic analysis and estimated distances between MAG GKL-02 and the genomes of the previously described species of the genus Thiothrix allowed assigning GKL-02 to a new species with the proposed name ‘Candidatus Thiothrix putei’ sp. nov. GKL-02 within the genus Thiothrix. Genome data first revealed the presence of both Na+-ATPases and H+-ATPases in several Thiothrix species. According to genomic analysis, bacteria GKL-01 and GKL-02 are metabolically versatile facultative aerobes capable of growing either chemolithoautotrophically or chemolithoheterotrophically in the presence of hydrogen sulfide and/or thiosulfate or chemoorganoheterotrophically.
The complete genome sequence of “
Phytoplasma cynodontis” strain GY2015, which consists of one 498,922-bp circular chromosome, is presented in this work. This uncultivated plant-pathogenic bacterium is associated with Bermuda grass white leaf disease in Taoyuan, Taiwan.