In the spring of 2012, sophora (Sophora alopecuroides L.) plants showing symptoms of leaf yellowing, little leaves and stunting were observed in Firooz-kuh (Tehran province), Sari (Mazandaran province) and Urmia (West Azerbaijan province) in Iran. Symptomatic plants from the three locations were subjected to nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify 16SrRNA using primer pair P1/P7 followed by primer pair R16F2n/R16R2. The amplicons were purified, sequenced and the nucleotide sequences were analyzed by virtual restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The phytoplasmas associated with the yellows disease were identified as members of the 16SrIX group (Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium) and the 16SrXII group (Candidatus Phytoplasma solani). The two phytoplasmas were placed in 16SrIX-C and 16SrXII-A subgroups, respectively, in constructed phylogenetic trees. This is the first report on sophora yellows associated with Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium.