This report describes a case of canine hemotropic mycoplasmasosis by Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum in a dog. A five-year-old splenectomized dog was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Sassari with clinical symptoms and laboratory findings compatible with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. Epicellular bacteria were detected in the erythrocytes by microscopic examination of blood smears. PCR and sequencing were positive for Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum. Treatment with doxycycline, prednisolone and blood transfusion was administered. Several studies have described the molecular prevalence of M. hemocanis and Candidatus M. haematoparvum, however there are few clinical reports, especially those describing Candidatus M. haematoparvum infection in dogs, for which only two cases have been reported. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case report of a symptomatic infection caused by Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum in Italy. Hemoplasmosis should be considered as a potential cause of hemolytic anemia in dogs. Following treatment with doxycycline and prednisolone, the clinical signs improved without resolution of infection. This condition was the same at the three-year follow-up.
Background and Aim: Wildlife animals are reservoirs of a large number of microorganisms pathogenic to humans, and ticks could be responsible for the transmission of these pathogens. Rickettsia spp. are the most prevalent pathogens found in ticks. This study was conducted to detect Rickettsia spp. in ticks collected from free-living and illegally trafficked reptiles from the Department of Córdoba, Colombia.
Materials and Methods: During the period from October 2011 to July 2014, ticks belonging to the family Ixodidae were collected, preserved in 96% ethanol, identified using taxonomic keys, and pooled (between 1 and 14 ticks) according to sex, stage, host, and collected place for subsequent DNA extraction. Rickettsia detection was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), followed by conventional PCR to amplify a larger fragment of the gltA and 16S rRNA genes. The amplicons were sequenced using the Sanger method, and the nucleotide sequences were subjected to BLAST analysis to identify homologous sequences in GenBank, after which phylogenetic analysis was performed using the MEGA X software.
Results: In total, 21 specimens of nine species of reptiles were sampled, from which 805 Amblyomma dissimile ticks were collected, but only 180 ticks were selected to create 34 groups. The DNA of Rickettsia spp. was detected in 30/34 (88%) groups. The sequences of the gene gltA and 16S rRNA revealed a 100% identity with Candidatus Rickettsia colombianensi (GenBank: KF905456 and GenBank: KF691750).
Conclusion: A. dissimile was the only tick found in all the sampled reptiles. The presence of Candidatus Rickettsia colombianensi in reptile ticks could represent a public health problem due to the risk of transmission to humans and the introduction of microorganisms to other geographical areas.
AbstractRickettsia typhi and Rickettsia felis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) are flea-transmitted pathogens. They are important causes of acute febrile illness throughout the world. We, therefore, sought to identify the rickettsial species present in the fleas of dogs and cats in the department of Cauca, Colombia. In this study, we collected 1,242 fleas from 132 dogs and 43 fleas from 11 cats. All fleas were morphologically identified as Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) adults and organized in pools for DNA extraction (234 pools from dogs and 11 from cats). The gltA gene from rickettsiae was targeted for screening amplification using conventional PCR. In total, 144 of the 245 pools (58.7%) were positive. The positive samples were then processed for the amplification of the 17kDa antigen gene (144/144; 100% positive) and sca5 gene (140/144; 97.2% positive). In addition, restriction enzyme length polymorphism analysis using NlaIV on the amplified product of the sca5 gene demonstrated several organisms: 21/140 (15%) were R. felis, 118/140 (84.3%) were Rickettsia asemboensis, and 1/140 (0.7%) were Candidatus Rickettsia senegalensis. Subsequent sequencing confirmed Candidatus Rickettsia senegalensis in C. felis collected from dogs the first reported from Colombia.
Human activities such as deforestation, urbanization, and environmental pollution lead to a reduction in the spatial boundary between wild animals, domestic animals and humans. These activities increase the risk for the emergence of pathogens from the sylvatic cycle in the population of domestic animals and humans. Foxes are recognized as potential reservoirs for a number of bacterial pathogens of medical and public health concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and spatial distribution of bacterial tick-borne pathogens from the Anaplasmataceae family, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, Bartonella spp., in the red fox population from Serbia and to discuss the obtained results from the epidemiological point of view. Legally hunted red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from 14 localities in Serbia were included in the study and spleen samples from 129 animals were tested with conventional PCR assays for the presence of bacterial tick-borne pathogens. DNA of Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. (FU98), Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia lusitaniae, and Borrelia garinii was detected in 6 (4.7%), 1 (0.8%), 2 (1.6%) and 1 (0.8%) animals, respectively. Co-infection by Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. (FU98) and B. garinii was detected in one animal. All samples were negative for other tested bacterial tick-borne pathogens. The results of the present study indicate the potential role of foxes in natural cycles of Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. (FU98) and causative agents of Lyme borreliosis in the investigated areas. Further research is required to elucidate the role of foxes in the epidemiology of these and other tick-borne zoonotic pathogens in the Republic of Serbia.