This report describes a case of canine hemotropic mycoplasmasosis by Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum in a dog. A five-year-old splenectomized dog was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Sassari with clinical symptoms and laboratory findings compatible with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. Epicellular bacteria were detected in the erythrocytes by microscopic examination of blood smears. PCR and sequencing were positive for Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum. Treatment with doxycycline, prednisolone and blood transfusion was administered. Several studies have described the molecular prevalence of M. hemocanis and Candidatus M. haematoparvum, however there are few clinical reports, especially those describing Candidatus M. haematoparvum infection in dogs, for which only two cases have been reported. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case report of a symptomatic infection caused by Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum in Italy. Hemoplasmosis should be considered as a potential cause of hemolytic anemia in dogs. Following treatment with doxycycline and prednisolone, the clinical signs improved without resolution of infection. This condition was the same at the three-year follow-up.