The present study describes a simultaneous infection of a novel Chlamydia-like organism (CLO) with a Myxozoa parasite, Henneguya sp. in snakeskin gourami Trichopodus pectoralis in Thailand. A new CLO is proposed “Candidatus Piscichlamydia trichopodus” (CPT) based on 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis. Systemic intracellular CPT infection was confirmed by histological examination, in situ hybridization, PCR assay, and sequencing of 16S rRNA. This novel pathogen belongs to the order Chlamydiales but differs in certain aspects from other species. The histopathological changes associated with CPT infection were different from the typical pathological lesions of epitheliocystis caused by previously known CLO. Unlike other CLO, CPT localized in the connective tissue rather than in the epithelial cells and formed smaller clumps of intracellular bacteria that stained dark blue with hematoxylin. On the other hand, typical myxospores of the genus Henneguya with tails were observed in the gill sections. Infection with Henneguya sp. resulted in extensive destruction of the gill filaments, most likely leading to respiratory distress. Due to the frequency of co-infections and the unavailability of culture methods for CLO and Henneguya sp., it was difficult to determine which pathogens were directly responsible for the associated mortality. However, co-infections may increase the negative impact on the host and the severity of the disease. Given the commercial importance of the snakeskin gourami and its significant aquaculture potential, the findings of this study are important for further studies on disease prevention.
The aim of this study was to measure the serum proinflammatory (IL-12, GM-CSF & IFN-γ) to anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4) cytokine ratio, oxidant (MDA) level and antioxidant enzyme (SOD; GPx) activities after blood parasite infections. The blood and serum samples were obtained from 130 cattle and screened for identity of the infecting blood parasites by conventional PCR. The following blood parasite species were detected: Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos (70/130); Theileria orientalis (65/130); Theileria sinensis (32/130); Anaplasma marginale (49/130); Anaplasma platys (7/130); and Trypanosoma evansi (4/130). The GM-CSF/IL-10 ratio showed significantly higher values in all the symptomatic blood parasite infected cattle groups except for symptomatic A. platys infected cattle groups. Anti-inflammatory cytokine immune responses were notable findings in symptomatic and asymptomatic cattle infected with C. M. haemobos and T. orientalis characterized by low serum IL-12:IL-10, IFN-γ:IL-10, IL-12:IL-4 and IFN-γ:IL-4 (p < 0.05). Therefore, high serum GM-CSF:IL:10 in the symptomatic blood parasite infected cattle, low serum IL-12:IL-10, IFN-γ:IL-10, IL-12:IL-4 and IFN-γ:IL-4 ratios in asymptomatic cattle, high MDA level, and increased antioxidant enzyme activities could be useful predictive tools for outcome of natural blood parasite infections in cattle.
Serious disease outbreaks in cattle are usually associated with blood pathogens. This study aims to detect blood pathogens namely Theileria species, Anaplasma species, Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos and Trypanosoma evansi, and determine their phylogenetic relationships and haemato-biochemical abnormalities in naturally infected cattle.
Molecular analysis was achieved by PCR amplification and sequencing of PCR amplicons of 18SrRNA gene of Theileria species, 16SrRNA genes of Anaplasma and Mycoplasma species, MPSP genes of T. orientalis and T. sinensis, MSP4 gene of A. marginale, 16SrRNA gene of Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos, and RoTat1.2 VSG gene of Trypanosoma evansi, in sixty-one (61) clinically ill Kedah-Kelantan x Brahman cattle in Pahang, Malaysia.
A total of 44 (72.13%) cattle were infected with more than one blood pathogen. Theileria species was the blood pathogen with the highest molecular detection rate (72.13, 95% CI 59.83–81.81%). Nucleotide blast analyses of all sequences demonstrated high degree of molecular similarity (98–100%) in comparison with their respective reference sequences. Analysis of 18SrRNA gene sequences of Theileria species and 16SrRNA gene sequences of Anaplasma species revealed Theileria sinensis and Anaplasma platys respectively as additional species detected in these cattle. MPSP-PCR analysis was conducted for further confirmation of T. sinensis. The blood picture of eight infected cattle groups revealed poikilocytosis, anisocytosis, rouleaux formation and degenerative left shift. High mean erythrocyte fragility values were common in infected cattle groups. Anaemia of the macrocytic normochromic type and spherocytes were observed in the T. evansi and Anaplasma platys + Theileria sinensis double species co-infected cattle group. Normocytic normochromic anaemia was observed in the T. sinensis infected cattle group. Significant (p < 0.05) increases in serum liver and kidney parameters, total protein, globulin, total and unconjugated bilirubin and decreased albumin values were observed in the T. evansi infected cattle when compared to clinically healthy cattle.
We present the first evidence of Theileria sinensis-associated bovine anaemia (TSABA) in Malaysian cattle. Because of the high occurrence of bovine theileriosis and detection of A. platys, there is an urgent need for appropriate preventive and control measures against these blood pathogens.
Background and Aim: Hemoplasmas are defined as small, epicellular parasitic bacteria that can infect the red blood cells of several mammalian species. Diseases caused by these bacteria range from asymptomatic infections to acute hemolytic anemia. However, data on hemoplasmas in non-human primates in Thailand remain to be limited. Therefore, this study aims to determine the occurrence and genetic diversity of hemoplasmas among long-tailed macaques in Thailand.
Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 339 long-tailed macaques in three provinces of Thailand. DNA was then extracted from the blood samples and tested for hemoplasma using broad-range nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the 16S rRNA gene. PCR-positive samples were sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis for species identification was conducted.
Results: In total, 38 (11.2%) out of the 339 samples were found to be positive for hemoplasmas, based on the broad-range nested PCR assay of the 16S rRNA gene. The 16S rRNA sequences of Mycoplasma spp. were highly similar (98-99% identity) to "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomacaque." Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood demonstrated that the sequences were located in the same cluster of "Ca. M. haemomacaque."
Conclusion: The detection of hemoplasmas among long-tailed macaques in Thailand is reported. Genetic characterization confirmed that these hemoplasmas are closely related to "Ca. M. haemomacaque." These results indicate that long-tailed macaques in several locations in Thailand may be infected and serve as reservoirs for this parasite.
Tick-borne agents constitute a growing concern for human and animal health worldwide. Hyalomma aegyptium is a hard tick with a three-host life cycle, whose main hosts for adults are Palearctic tortoises of genus Testudo. Nevertheless, immature ticks can feed on a variety of hosts, representing an important eco-epidemiological issue regarding H. aegyptium pathogens circulation. Hyalomma aegyptium ticks are vectors and/or reservoirs of various pathogenic agents, such as Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Babesia and Hepatozoon/Hemolivia. Ehrlichia and Anaplasma are emergent tick-borne bacteria with a worldwide distribution and zoonotic potential, responsible for diseases that cause clinical manifestations that grade from acute febrile illness to a fulminant disease characterized by multi-organ system failure, depending on the species. Babesia and Hepatozoon/Hemolivia are tick-borne parasites with increasing importance in multiple species. Testudo graeca tortoises acquired in a large animal market in Doha, Qatar, were screened for a panel of tick-borne pathogens by conventional PCR followed by bidirectional sequencing. The most prevalent agent identified in ticks was Hemolivia mauritanica (28.6%), followed by Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii (9.5%) and Ehrlichia spp. (4.7%). All samples were negative for Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. Overall, 43% of the examined adult ticks were infected with at least one agent. Only 4.7% of the ticks appeared to be simultaneously infected with two agents, i.e., Ehrlichia spp. and H. mauritanica. This is the first detection of H. mauritanica, Ehrlichia spp. and Candidatus M. mitochondrii in H. aegyptium ticks collected from pet spur-thighed tortoises, in Qatar, a fact which adds to the geographical extension of these agents. The international trade of Testudo tortoises carrying ticks infected with pathogens of veterinary and medical importance deserves strict control, in order to reduce potential exotic diseases.