In addition to Mycoplasma haemocanis and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum, a few hemoplasma species that mainly infect other livestock have been detected in dogs. ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos’ (Ca. M. haemobos) has been found in a variety of animals in China. The present study was aimed to investigate the occurrence of ‘Ca. M. haemobos’ infections in dogs and ticks collected from the Henan province, China.
Overall, 55 dog blood samples and 378 ticks on skins were collected from anemic and healthy dogs, and these samples were subjected to PCR, sequence analysis, and identification. The results showed that Haemaphysalis longicornis (266) and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (112) were the only two parasitic ticks on dogs. Molecular detection revealed that 163 M. haemocanis, 88 ‘Ca. M. haemobos’ and 32 Anaplasma platys positive amplicons could be amplified from dogs, H. longicornis and R. (B.) microplus. In addition, co-infections (M. haemocanis + A. platys and ‘Ca. M. haemobos’+ A. platys) could be also detected.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first molecular evidence of ‘Ca. M. haemobos’ natural infection in dogs and tick species identified as H. longicornis and R. (B.) microplus from China.
The appearance of the novel porcine haemotrophic mycoplasma (HM) species ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemosuis’ was reported in apparently healthy but also in clinically sick animals in China, Korea and in a case report from Germany. Outside of Asia, however, nothing further is known about the frequency of ‘Ca. M. haemosuis’ in pigs to date. To investigate the distribution of this novel HM species in Germany, fattening pigs, sows and pre-suckling piglets were examined using a herein developed quantitative real-time PCR assay (qPCR). Because the piglets were sampled before the first colostrum uptake, additional information on a possible vertical transmission from dams to their offspring was obtained.
Our novel qPCR assay successfully detected ‘Ca. M. haemosuis’ in all blood samples from the ‘Ca. M. haemosuis’-infected pigs. No cross-reactivity was detected when DNA from non-target Mycoplasma spp. and other bacterial species representing 105 bacteria/reaction were used as a template. The lower limit of detection of the qPCR was thus 10 gap gene copies per reaction and 2.5 x 103 genome equivalents (GE) per mL blood.
‘Candidatus M. haemosuis’ was detected by this qPCR in blood samples from a total out of 6.25% sows (13/208), 4.50% pre-suckling piglets (28/622) and 17.50% fattening pigs (35/200). On farm level, 3 out of 21 piglet producing farms (14.28%) and 9 out of 20 fattening farms (45.00%) were positive for ‘Ca. M. haemosuis’. Co-infections with M. suis were evident in all age groups.
‘Candidatus M. haemosuis’ infection is present in German pig farms and the detection of the novel porcine HM species in piglets immediately after birth before colostrum intake indicates vertical transmission. The novel qPCR assay specific for ‘Ca. M. haemosuis’ described herein will be a prerequisite for future studies on the prevalence, epidemiology as well as the clinical and economic impact of ‘Ca. M. haemosuis’ infections.
This study presents the molecular detection of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae and Ehrlichia sp. in Amblyomma pseudoconcolor Aragão, 1908 (Acari: Ixodidae) collected on a large hairy armadillo (Chaetophractus villosus (Desmarest, 1804)). On 12 October 2020, a specimen of C. villosus was found dead on the road in Río Negro province, Argentina. Molecular detection of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia agents was performed amplifying the gltA and 16S rRNA gene, respectively. One tick, determined morphologically and genetically as A. pseudoconcolor, was collected on C. villosus. The rickettsial agent detected in A. pseudoconcolor was identified as Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. The Ehrlichia sp. strain showed high sequence similarity to different uncultured Ehrlichia sp. detected in horses, capybaras and Ixodes ornithorhynchi from Nicaragua, Brazil and Australia, respectively. The results of this study and previous findings suggest that A. pseudoconcolor may be a potential vector of some Rickettsia and Ehrlichia bacteria of unknown pathogenicity.
Health monitoring programs in animals used as experimental models are essential, since only disease-free subjects are considered suitable for research purposes. In laboratory-kept animals, hemoplasmas have been described as an important confounding variable. Different hemoplasma species have been detected infecting non-human primates (NHP) from Brazil. However, the occurrence of hemoplasma species in laboratory-kept NHP in Brazil has not-yet been assessed. Accordingly, this study aimed (i) to screen laboratory-kept rhesus monkeys for hemoplasmas, (ii) to verify if any of the hemoplasma-positive animals demonstrate hematological abnormalities, and (iii) to assess the genotype diversity of hemoplasma species in NHP from Brazil. Five out of eight (62.5%; 95% CI: 3.05–8.63) rhesus monkeys tested positive for hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. by PCR. Sequencing, phylogenetic, distance, and genotype diversity analyses of partial 16S rRNA gene demonstrate that rhesus monkeys were infected by ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haematomacacae’ (formerly ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomacaque’). Assessments of partial 16S rRNA diversity of hemoplasma species in NHP suggest that at least four genetically diverse groups may occur in Brazil. Although no hematological abnormalities were demonstrated in rhesus monkeys evaluated herein, future studies are needed to elucidate the influence of ‘Ca. M. haematomacacae’ as a confounding variable on research studies.
Objetivo. Informe sobre especies de garrapatas que parasitan a los humanos en un área del bioma semiárido de Caatinga, noreste de Brasil, con nota de infección por rickettsias. Materiales y métodos. Todas las garrapatas se identificaron morfológicamente con estereomicroscopio. Algunas de las garrapatas recolectadas se analizaron molecularmente para detectar la presencia de ADN de bacterias del género Rickettsia. Las garrapatas se sometieron individualmente a la extracción de ADN (gen de la citrato sintasa [gltA] y gen de la proteína de la membrana externa [ompA]). Resultados. Se recolectaron un total de 78 garrapatas en humanos, identificadas como adultos de Amblyomma parvum (62 hembras y 16 machos). De estas, 15 mujeres fueron infectadas por ‘Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae’. Conclusiones. El presente estudio confirma una zona más de riesgo humano de picaduras de garrapatas en Brasil, también de la rickettsia no patógena 'Ca. Rickettsia andeanae'
The present study describes a simultaneous infection of a novel Chlamydia-like organism (CLO) with a Myxozoa parasite, Henneguya sp. in snakeskin gourami Trichopodus pectoralis in Thailand. A new CLO is proposed “Candidatus Piscichlamydia trichopodus” (CPT) based on 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis. Systemic intracellular CPT infection was confirmed by histological examination, in situ hybridization, PCR assay, and sequencing of 16S rRNA. This novel pathogen belongs to the order Chlamydiales but differs in certain aspects from other species. The histopathological changes associated with CPT infection were different from the typical pathological lesions of epitheliocystis caused by previously known CLO. Unlike other CLO, CPT localized in the connective tissue rather than in the epithelial cells and formed smaller clumps of intracellular bacteria that stained dark blue with hematoxylin. On the other hand, typical myxospores of the genus Henneguya with tails were observed in the gill sections. Infection with Henneguya sp. resulted in extensive destruction of the gill filaments, most likely leading to respiratory distress. Due to the frequency of co-infections and the unavailability of culture methods for CLO and Henneguya sp., it was difficult to determine which pathogens were directly responsible for the associated mortality. However, co-infections may increase the negative impact on the host and the severity of the disease. Given the commercial importance of the snakeskin gourami and its significant aquaculture potential, the findings of this study are important for further studies on disease prevention.
The aim of this study was to measure the serum proinflammatory (IL-12, GM-CSF & IFN-γ) to anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4) cytokine ratio, oxidant (MDA) level and antioxidant enzyme (SOD; GPx) activities after blood parasite infections. The blood and serum samples were obtained from 130 cattle and screened for identity of the infecting blood parasites by conventional PCR. The following blood parasite species were detected: Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos (70/130); Theileria orientalis (65/130); Theileria sinensis (32/130); Anaplasma marginale (49/130); Anaplasma platys (7/130); and Trypanosoma evansi (4/130). The GM-CSF/IL-10 ratio showed significantly higher values in all the symptomatic blood parasite infected cattle groups except for symptomatic A. platys infected cattle groups. Anti-inflammatory cytokine immune responses were notable findings in symptomatic and asymptomatic cattle infected with C. M. haemobos and T. orientalis characterized by low serum IL-12:IL-10, IFN-γ:IL-10, IL-12:IL-4 and IFN-γ:IL-4 (p < 0.05). Therefore, high serum GM-CSF:IL:10 in the symptomatic blood parasite infected cattle, low serum IL-12:IL-10, IFN-γ:IL-10, IL-12:IL-4 and IFN-γ:IL-4 ratios in asymptomatic cattle, high MDA level, and increased antioxidant enzyme activities could be useful predictive tools for outcome of natural blood parasite infections in cattle.