In this paper, a comprehensive overview of the ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ presence in Europe was provided. The analyzed findings revealed that, since the first appearance of this pathogen in Finland and Spain in 2008, it has spread to 13 new European countries. Therefore, ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ has spread very quickly across the European continent, as evident from the emergence of new host plants within the Apiaceae, Urticaceae, and Polygonaceae families, as well as new haplotypes of this pathogen. Thus far, 5 of the 15 ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ haplotypes determined across the globe have been confirmed in Europe (haplotypes C, D, E, U, and H). Fully competent ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ vectors include Bactericera cockerelli, Trioza apicalis, and B. trigonica; however, only T. apicalis and B. trigonica are presently established in Europe and are very important for plants from the Apiaceae family in particular. Moreover, psyllid species such as B. tremblayi, T. urticae, and T. anthrisci have also been confirmed positive for ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’. Constant monitoring of its spread in the field (in both symptomatic and asymptomatic plants), use of sensitive molecular diagnostic techniques, and application of timely management strategies are, therefore, of utmost importance for the control of this destructive pathogen.
Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening, is an insidious disease in citrus and has become a threat to the sustainability of the citrus industry worldwide. In the U.S., Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is the pathogen that is associated with HLB, an unculturable, phloem-limited bacteria, vectored by the Asian Citrus Psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri). There is no known cure nor treatment to effectively control HLB, and current control methods are primarily based on the use of insecticides and antibiotics, where effectiveness is limited and may have negative impacts on beneficial and non-target organisms. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of effective and sustainable treatment options to reduce or eliminate CLas from infected trees. In the present study, we screened citrus-derived endophytes, their cell-free culture supernatants (CFCS), and crude plant extracts for antimicrobial activity against two culturable surrogates of CLas, Sinorhizobium meliloti and Liberibacter crescens. Candidates considered high-potential antimicrobial agents were assessed directly against CLas in vitro, using a propidium monoazide–based assay. As compared to the negative controls, statistically significant reductions of viable CLas cells were observed for each of the five bacterial CFCS. Subsequent 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that each of the five bacterial isolates were most closely related to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, a species dominating the market of biological control products. As such, the aboveground endosphere of asymptomatic survivor citrus trees, grown in an organic orchard, were found to host bacterial endophytes capable of effectively disrupting CLas cell membranes. These results concur with the theory that native members of the citrus microbiome play a role in the development of HLB. Here, we identify five strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens demonstrating notable potential to be used as sources of novel antimicrobials for the sustainable management of HLB.
Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (D. citri) is an insect vector of phloem-limited ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiatus’ (CLas), the presumed pathogen of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB). Recently, our lab has preliminarily found it acquired and transmitted Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), which was previously suggested to be vectored by species of aphids. However, the influences of one of the pathogens on the acquisition and transmission efficiency of the other pathogen remain unknown. In this study, CLas and CTV acquisition and transmission by D. citri at different development stages under field and laboratory conditions were determined. CTV could be detected from the nymphs, adults, and honeydew of D. citri but not from the eggs and exuviates of them. CLas in plants might inhibit CTV acquisition by D. citri as lower CTV–positive rates and CTV titers were detected in D. citri collected from HLB-affected trees compared to those from CLas–free trees. D. citri were more likely to obtain CTV than CLas from host plants co-infected with the two pathogens. Intriguingly, CTV in D. citri facilitated the acquisition and transmission of CLas, but CLas carried by D. citri had no significant effect on the transmission of CTV by the same vector. Molecular detection and microscopy methods confirmed the enrichment of CTV in the midgut after a 72-h acquisition access period. Collectively, these results raise essential scientific questions for further research on the molecular mechanism of pathogen transmission by D. citri and provide new ideas for the comprehensive prevention and control of HLB and CTV.
The Anaplasmataceae family encompasses obligate intracellular α-proteobacteria of human and veterinary medicine importance. This study performed multi-locus sequencing to characterize Ehrlichia and Anaplasma in coati’s blood samples in Midwestern Brazil. Twenty-five samples (25/165—15.1%) were positive in the screening PCR based on the dsb gene of Ehrlichia spp. and were characterized using 16S rRNA, sodB, groEL, and gltA genes and the 23S-5S intergenic space region (ITS). Phylogenetic analyses based on all six molecular markers positioned the sequences into a new clade, with a common origin of Ehrlichia ruminantium. Haplotype analyses of 16S RNA sequences revealed the presence of two distinct Ehrlichia genotypes. Six samples (6/165, 3.6%) were positive in the screening nPCR for the 16S rRNA gene of Anaplasma spp. and were submitted to an additional PCR targeting the ITS for molecular characterization. Phylogenetic analyses based on both 16S rRNA gene and ITS positioned the Anaplasma sp. detected in the present study in a large clade with other Anaplasma sp. previously detected in ticks and wild animals and in a clade with ‘Candidatus Anaplasma brasiliensis’, respectively. Based on distinct molecular markers, the present work described a putative novel Anaplasmataceae agent, namely ‘Candidatus Ehrlichia dumleri’, and Anaplasma sp. closely related to the previously described ‘Candidatus Anaplasma brasiliensis’.
One highly diverse phylogenetic group of Bacteria,
. Patescibacteria, remains poorly understood, but, from the few cultured representatives and metagenomic investigations, they are thought to live symbiotically or parasitically with other bacteria or even with eukarya.
In Saudi Arabia (SA), the citrus greening disease is caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri. The origin and route(s) of the ACP-CLas pathosystem invasion in SA have not been studied. Adult ACP were collected from citrus trees in SA and differentiated by analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) and nuclear copper transporting protein (atox1) genes. A phylogenetic analysis of the Wolbachia spp. surface protein (wsp) gene was used to identify the ACP-associated Wolbachia spp. A phylogenetic analysis of the atox1 and mtCOI gene sequences revealed one predominant ACP haplotype most closely related to the Indian subcontinent founder populations. The detection and identification of CLas in citrus trees were carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene. The CLas-integrated prophage genomes were sequenced, annotated, and used to differentiate CLas populations. The ML and ASTRAL trees reconstructed with prophages type 1 and 2 genome sequences, separately and concatenated, resolved two major lineages, CLas-1 and -2. The CLas-1 clade, reported here for the first time, consisted of isolates from SA isolates and Pakistan. The CLas-2 sequences formed two groups, CLas-2-1 and -2-2, previously the ‘Asiatic’ and ‘Floridian’ strains, respectively. Members of CLas-2-1 originated from Southeast Asia, the USA, and other worldwide locations, while CLas-2-2 was identified only in Florida. This study provides the first snapshot into the status of the ACP-CLas pathosystem in SA. In addition, the results provide new insights into the pathosystem coevolution and global invasion histories of two ACP-CLas lineages with a predicted center of origin in South and Southeast Asia, respectively.
The black-eared opossum (Didelphis aurita) is a South American synanthropic marsupial. The presence of opossums in domestic spaces is relevant in the One-Health context since they are hosts of pathogens and ectoparasites that may affect the health of domestic animals and humans. In this study, we aim to determine the occurrence of hemoplasmas and selected tick-borne pathogens in free-ranging black-eared opossums, along with their molecular characterization, hematological and biochemical evaluation and factors associated with infection, in the municipality of Viçosa, State of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Thirty black-eared opossums were trapped between March 2021 and June 2022. Ectoparasites were collected. Hematological and biochemical analyses were performed. DNA from EDTA-blood samples were analyzed by PCR and qPCR assays. By molecular analyses, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemoalbiventris’ was the most prevalent hemoparasite (73.3%), followed by Hepatozoon sp. (22.2%). Significant differences were observed in the number of platelets, and in the concentration of protein and globulins in the animals infected by ‘Ca. M. haemoalbiventris’ when compared with the negative group. This is the first report of ‘Ca. M. haemoalbiventris’ infection in D. aurita.