AbstractThe human gut microbiome plays an important role in health, but its archaeal diversity remains largely unexplored. In the present study, we report the analysis of 1,167 nonredundant archaeal genomes (608 high-quality genomes) recovered from human gastrointestinal tract, sampled across 24 countries and rural and urban populations. We identified previously undescribed taxa including 3 genera, 15 species and 52 strains. Based on distinct genomic features, we justify the split of the Methanobrevibacter smithii clade into two separate species, with one represented by the previously undescribed ‘CandidatusMethanobrevibacter intestini’. Patterns derived from 28,581 protein clusters showed significant associations with sociodemographic characteristics such as age groups and lifestyle. We additionally show that archaea are characterized by specific genomic and functional adaptations to the host and carry a complex virome. Our work expands our current understanding of the human archaeome and provides a large genome catalogue for future analyses to decipher its impact on human physiology.
Biological foaming or scumming is a sludge separation problem that has become the subject of major concern for long-term stable activated sludge operation in decades. Biological foaming was considered induced by foaming bacteria.
A wide array of archaea populate Earth’s extreme environments; therefore, they may play important roles in mediating biogeochemical processes such as iron and sulfur cycling. However, our knowledge of archaeal biology and evolution is still limited considering that the majority of the archaeal diversity is uncultured.
Many biotechnological applications deal with nitrification, one of the main steps of the global nitrogen cycle. The biological oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and further to nitrate is critical to avoid environmental damage and its functioning has to be retained even under adverse conditions. Bacteria performing the second reaction, oxidation of nitrite to nitrate, are fastidious microorganisms that are highly sensitive against disturbances. One important finding with relevance for nitrogen removal systems was the discovery of the mainly cold-adapted Cand. Nitrotoga, whose activity seems to be essential for the recovery of nitrite oxidation in wastewater treatment plants at low temperatures, e.g., during cold seasons. Several new strains of this genus have been recently described and ecophysiologically characterized including genome analyses. With increasing diversity, also mesophilic Cand. Nitrotoga representatives have been detected in activated sludge. This review summarizes the natural distribution and driving forces defining niche separation in artificial nitrification systems. Further critical aspects for the competition with Nitrospira and Nitrobacter are discussed. Knowledge about the physiological capacities and limits of Cand. Nitrotoga can help to define physico-chemical parameters for example in reactor systems that need to be run at low temperatures.
• Characterization of the psychrotolerant nitrite oxidizer Cand. Nitrotoga
• Comparison of the physiological features of Cand. Nitrotoga with those of other NOB
• Identification of beneficial environmental/operational parameters for proliferation