AbstractThe Asgard superphylum is a deeply branching monophyletic group of Archaea, recently described as some of the closest relatives of the eukaryotic ancestor. The wide application of genomic analyses from metagenome sequencing has established six distinct phyla, whose genomes encode for diverse metabolic capacities and play important biogeochemical and ecological roles in marine sediments. Here, we describe two metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) recovered from deep marine sediments off Costa Rica margin, defining a novel lineage phylogenetically married to Thorarchaeota, as such we propose the name “Sifarchaeota” for this phylum. The two “Sifarchaeota” MAGs encode for an anaerobic methylotrophy pathway enabling the utilization of C1-C3 compounds (methanol and methylamines) to synthesize acetyl CoA. Also, the MAGs showed a remarkable saccharolytic capabilities compared to other Asgard lineages and encoded for diverse classes of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) targeting different mono-, di- and oligosaccharides. Comparative genomic analysis based on the full metabolic profiles of Asgard lineages revealed the close relation between “Sifarchaeota” and Odinarchaeota MAGs, which suggested a similar metabolic potentials and ecological roles. Furthermore, we identified multiple potential horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events from different bacterial donors within “Sifarchaetoa” MAGs, which hypothetically expanded “Sifarchaeota” capacities for substrate utilization, energy production and niche adaptation.ImportanceDeep marine sediments are the home of multiple poorly described archaeal lineages, many of which have ecological and evolutionary importance. We recovered metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) belonging to a novel Asgard phylum from the deep sediment of the Costa Rica margin. We proposed the name “Sifarchaeota” to describe the members of this phylum. Representative genomes of the “Sifarchaeota” showed remarkable saccharolytic capacities extending the known metabolic features encoded by the Asgard lineages. We attribute its ability to survive under the deep sediment conditions to its putative capacities to utilize different (C1-C3) compounds commonly encountered in deep sediment environments via anaerobic methylotrophy pathway. Also, we showed the importance of horizontal gene transfer in enhancing the “Sifarchaeota” collective adaptation strategies.
The exploration of deep marine sediments has unearthed many new lineages of microbes. The finding of this novel phylum of Asgard archaea is important, since understanding the diversity and evolution of Asgard archaea may inform also about the evolution of eukaryotic cells. The comparison of metabolic potentials of the Asgard archaea can help inform about selective pressures the lineages have faced during evolution.
“Candidatus Nitrosocaldaceae” are globally distributed in neutral or slightly alkaline hot springs and geothermally heated soils. Despite their essential role in the nitrogen cycle in high-temperature ecosystems, they remain poorly understood because they have never been isolated in pure culture, and very few genomes are available. In the present study, a metagenomics approach was employed to obtain “Ca. Nitrosocaldaceae” metagenomic-assembled genomes (MAGs) from hot spring samples collected from India and China. Phylogenomic analysis placed these MAGs within “Ca. Nitrosocaldaceae.” Average nucleotide identity and average amino acid identity analysis suggested the new MAGs represent two novel species of “Candidatus Nitrosocaldus” and a novel genus, herein proposed as “Candidatus Nitrosothermus.” Key genes responsible for chemolithotrophic ammonia oxidation and a thaumarchaeal 3HP/4HB cycle were detected in all MAGs. Furthermore, genes coding for urea degradation were only present in “Ca. Nitrosocaldus,” while biosynthesis of the vitamins, biotin, cobalamin, and riboflavin were detected in almost all MAGs. Comparison of “Ca. Nitrosocaldales/Nitrosocaldaceae” with other AOA revealed 526 specific orthogroups. This included genes related to thermal adaptation (cyclic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase), indicating their importance for life at high temperature. In addition, these MAGs acquired genes from members from archaea (Crenarchaeota) and bacteria (Firmicutes), mainly involved in metabolism and stress responses, which might play a role to allow this group to adapt to thermal habitats.
iaphorina citri is considered the most dangerous citrus pest because it transmits Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agent of Huanglongbing (HLB). Like other hemiptera insects, D. citri has developed mutualistic interactions with prokaryotic organisms known as endosymbionts. This symbiosis can be obligatory, when the interaction occurs with a primary endosymbiont, or facultative, when it is a secondary endosymbiont. Symbiosis is essential for various physiological functions, but some endosymbionts can adversely affect the psyllid's abilities. D. citri is associated with a great diversity of endosymbionts, with Candidatus Carsonella ruddii, Candidatus Profftella armatura, Candidatus Wolbachia spp. and Candidatus Liberibacter spp standing out. The aim o symbiotic relationship, prokaryotes, Candidatus Wolbachia, transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus.
The recently described superphylum DPANN includes several phyla of uncultivated archaea with small cell sizes, reduced genomes, and limited metabolic capabilities. One of these phyla, “
. Micrarchaeota,” comprises an enigmatic group of archaea found in acid mine drainage environments, the archaeal Richmond Mine acidophilic nanoorganisms (ARMAN) group. Analysis of their reduced genomes revealed the absence of key metabolic pathways consistent with their partner-associated lifestyle, and physical associations of ARMAN cells with their hosts were documented. However, “
. Micrarchaeota” include several lineages besides the ARMAN group found in nonacidic environments, and none of them have been characterized. Here, we report a complete genome of “
. Micrarchaeota” from a non-ARMAN lineage. Analysis of this genome revealed the presence of metabolic capacities lost in ARMAN genomes that could enable a free-living lifestyle. These results expand our understanding of genetic diversity, lifestyle, and evolution of “
ABSTRACTCold seeps and hydrothermal vents deliver large amounts of methane and other gaseous alkanes into marine surface sediments. Consortia of archaea and partner bacteria thrive on the oxidation of these alkanes and its coupling to sulfate reduction. The inherently slow growth of the involved organisms and the lack of pure cultures have impeded the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of archaeal alkane degradation. Here, using hydrothermal sediments of the Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California) and ethane as substrate we cultured microbial consortia of a novel anaerobic ethane oxidizer Candidatus Ethanoperedens thermophilum (GoM-Arc1 clade) and its partner bacterium Candidatus Desulfofervidus auxilii previously known from methane-oxidizing consortia. The sulfate reduction activity of the culture doubled within one week, indicating a much faster growth than in any other alkane-oxidizing archaea described before. The dominance of a single archaeal phylotype in this culture allowed retrieving a closed genome of Ca. Ethanoperedens, a sister genus of the recently reported ethane oxidizer Candidatus Argoarchaeum. The metagenome-assembled genome of Ca. Ethanoperedens encoded for a complete methanogenesis pathway including a methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) that is highly divergent from those of methanogens and methanotrophs. Combined substrate and metabolite analysis showed ethane as sole growth substrate and production of ethyl-coenzyme M as activation product. Stable isotope probing showed that the enzymatic mechanisms of ethane oxidation in Ca. Ethanoperedens is fully reversible, thus its enzymatic machinery has potential for the biotechnological development of microbial ethane production from carbon dioxide.IMPORTANCEIn the seabed gaseous alkanes are oxidized by syntrophic microbial consortia that thereby reduce fluxes of these compounds into the water column. Because of the immense quantities of seabed alkane fluxes, these consortia are key catalysts of the global carbon cycle. Due to their obligate syntrophic lifestyle, the physiology of alkane-degrading archaea remains poorly understood. We have now cultivated a thermophilic, relatively fast-growing ethane oxidizer in partnership with a sulfate-reducing bacterium known to aid in methane oxidation, and have retrieved the first complete genome of a short-chain alkane-degrading archaeon. This will greatly enhance the understanding of non-methane alkane activation by non-canonical methyl-coenzyme M reductase enzymes, and provide insights into additional metabolic steps and the mechanisms underlying syntrophic partnerships. Ultimately, this knowledge could lead to the biotechnological development of alkanogenic microorganisms to support the carbon neutrality of industrial processes.EtymologyEthanoperedens. ethano, (new Latin): pertaining to ethane; peredens (Latin): consuming, devouring; thermophilum. (Greek): heat-loving. The name implies an organism capable of ethane oxidation at elevated temperatures.LocalityEnriched from hydrothermally heated, hydrocarbon-rich marine sediment of the Guaymas Basin at 2000 m water depth, Gulf of California, Mexico.DiagnosisAnaerobic, ethane-oxidizing archaeon, mostly coccoid, about 0.7 μm in diameter, forms large irregular cluster in large dual-species consortia with the sulfate-reducing partner bacterium ‘Candidatus Desulfofervidus auxilii’.
In the seabed, gaseous alkanes are oxidized by syntrophic microbial consortia that thereby reduce fluxes of these compounds into the water column. Because of the immense quantities of seabed alkane fluxes, these consortia are key catalysts of the global carbon cycle. Due to their obligate syntrophic lifestyle, the physiology of alkane-degrading archaea remains poorly understood. We have now cultivated a thermophilic, relatively fast-growing ethane oxidizer in partnership with a sulfate-reducing bacterium known to aid in methane oxidation and have retrieved the first complete genome of a short-chain alkane-degrading archaeon. This will greatly enhance the understanding of nonmethane alkane activation by noncanonical methyl-coenzyme M reductase enzymes and provide insights into additional metabolic steps and the mechanisms underlying syntrophic partnerships. Ultimately, this knowledge could lead to the biotechnological development of alkanogenic microorganisms to support the carbon neutrality of industrial processes.
AbstractThe Terrestrial Miscellaneous Euryarchaeota Group has been identified in various environments, and the single genome investigated thus far suggests that these archaea are anaerobic sulfite reducers. We assemble 35 new genomes from this group that, based on genome analysis, appear to possess aerobic and facultative anaerobic lifestyles and may oxidise rather than reduce sulfite. We propose naming this order (representing 16 genera) “Lutacidiplasmatales” due to their occurrence in various acidic environments and placement within the phylum Thermoplasmatota. Phylum-level analysis reveals that Thermoplasmatota evolution had been punctuated by several periods of high levels of novel gene family acquisition. Several essential metabolisms, such as aerobic respiration and acid tolerance, were likely acquired independently by divergent lineages through convergent evolution rather than inherited from a common ancestor. Ultimately, this study describes the terrestrially prevalent Lutacidiciplasmatales and highlights convergent evolution as an important driving force in the evolution of archaeal lineages.