This study on
-galacturonate metabolism by open, mixed-culture enrichments under anaerobic,
-galacturonate-limited chemostat conditions shows a stable and efficient fermentation of
-galacturonate into acetate as the dominant organic fermentation product. This fermentation stoichiometry and population analyses provide a valuable baseline for interpretation of the conversion of pectin-rich agricultural feedstocks by mixed microbial cultures. Moreover, the results of this study provide a reference for studies on the microbial metabolism of
-galacturonate under different cultivation regimes.
SummaryMicroorganisms are main drivers of the sulfur, nitrogen and carbon biogeochemical cycles. These elemental cycles are interconnected by the activity of different guilds in sediments or wastewater treatment systems. Here, we investigated a nitrate‐reducing microbial community in a laboratory‐scale bioreactor model that closely mimicked estuary or brackish sediment conditions. The bioreactor simultaneously consumed sulfide, methane and ammonium at the expense of nitrate. Ammonium oxidation occurred solely by the activity of anammox bacteria identified as Candidatus Scalindua brodae and Ca. Kuenenia stuttgartiensis. Fifty‐three percent of methane oxidation was catalyzed by archaea affiliated to Ca. Methanoperedens and 47% by Ca. Methylomirabilis bacteria. Sulfide oxidation was mainly shared between two proteobacterial groups. Interestingly, competition for nitrate did not lead to exclusion of one particular group. Metagenomic analysis showed that the most abundant taxonomic group was distantly related to Thermodesulfovibrio sp. (87–89% 16S rRNA gene identity, 52–54% average amino acid identity), representing a new family within the Nitrospirae phylum. A high quality draft genome of the new species was recovered, and analysis showed high metabolic versatility. Related microbial groups are found in diverse environments with sulfur, nitrogen and methane cycling, indicating that these novel Nitrospirae bacteria might contribute to biogeochemical cycling in natural habitats.
The high-quality draft genome of “
Methanoperedens sp.” strain BLZ2, a nitrate-reducing archaeon anaerobically oxidizing methane, is presented. The genome was obtained from an enrichment culture and measures 3.74 Mb. It harbors two nitrate reductase gene clusters, an ammonium-forming nitrite reductase, and the complete reverse methanogenesis pathway. Methane that escapes to the atmosphere acts as a potent greenhouse gas. Global methane emissions are mitigated by methanotrophs, which oxidize methane to CO
Methanoperedens spp.” are unique methanotrophic archaea that can perform nitrate-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane. A high-quality draft genome sequence of only 85 contigs from this archaeon is presented here.