AbstractThe Candidate Phyla Radiation (CPR, or superphylum Patescibacteria) is a very large group of bacteria with few cultivated representatives first discovered by culture-independent metagenomic analyses. Within the CPR, the candidate phylum Parcubacteria (previously OD1) is prevalent in anoxic lake sediments and groundwater. We identified a bacterium belonging to the Parcubacteria in a methanogenic benzene-degrading enrichment culture originally derived from oil-contaminated sediments. Candidatus Nealsonbacteria DGGOD1a is the only bacterium other than a previously identified benzene-degrading fermenter (Deltaproteobacteria Candidate Sva0485 clade ORM2) consistently and abundantly detected in all active benzene-degrading transfers of this culture. Therefore, we hypothesized that DGGOD1a must serve an important role in sustaining anaerobic benzene metabolism in the consortium. Growth experiments using a variety of possible substrates suggested that it is involved in biomass recycling. Microscopic observations supported by molecular analyses and a closed genome revealed an epibiont lifestyle with very small Ca. Nealsonbacteria DGGOD1a closely associated with much larger Methanosaeta. The images reveal a first example of cross-domain episymbiosis that may apply to other Ca. Nealsonbacteria found in diverse environments.
We report the 4.55-Mbp genome of “
Fluviicola riflensis” (
) that was manually curated to completion from Illumina data. “
. Fluviicola riflensis” is a facultative anaerobe. Its ability to grow over a range of O
levels may favor its proliferation in an aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River in the United States.
Metagenomics has provided access to genomes of as yet uncultivated microorganisms in natural environments, yet there are gaps in our knowledge—particularly for Archaea—that occur at relatively low abundance and in extreme environments. Ultrasmall cells (<500 nm in diameter) from lineages without cultivated representatives that branch near the crenarchaeal/euryarchaeal divide have been detected in a variety of acidic ecosystems. We reconstructed composite, near-complete ~1-Mb genomes for three lineages, referred to as ARMAN (archaeal Richmond Mine acidophilic nanoorganisms), from environmental samples and a biofilm filtrate. Genes of two lineages are among the smallest yet described, enabling a 10% higher coding density than found genomes of the same size, and there are noncontiguous genes. No biological function could be inferred for up to 45% of genes and no more than 63% of the predicted proteins could be assigned to a revised set of archaeal clusters of orthologous groups. Some core metabolic genes are more common in
, up to 21% of genes have the highest sequence identity to bacterial genes, and 12 belong to clusters of orthologous groups that were previously exclusive to bacteria. A small subset of 3D cryo-electron tomographic reconstructions clearly show penetration of the ARMAN cell wall and cytoplasmic membranes by protuberances extended from cells of the archaeal order
. Interspecies interactions, the presence of a unique internal tubular organelle [Comolli, et al. (2009)
3:159–167], and many genes previously only affiliated with Crenarchaea or Bacteria indicate extensive unique physiology in organisms that branched close to the time that