Huanglongbing (HLB) is a devastating citrus disease caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). Since its initial outbreak in Guangdong Province, China, it has spread to 10 provinces and caused significant economic losses. Hence, assessing CLas genetic diversity and demographic history is crucial for HLB epidemic prevention and control. In this study, we collected 500 leaf samples of CLas-infected plants from 10 provinces. We performed multi-loci sequence analysis on four gene fragments (omp, DnaA, GroEL, and SDE1) to explore the genetic differentiation and diversity of CLas in China. Our results indicated low nucleotide diversity (0.00005 ± 0.00001) in CLas, with the absence of significant systematic geographic structure in its distribution. Molecular variance analysis revealed predominant (81.7%) genetic variations within the population, with a minor variation (18.3%) occurring between populations as well as Yunnan provinces. In the Fujian population, significant gene exchange occurred with the other nine populations. Significant negative values in Tajima’s D and Fu’s FS neutrality tests indicated historical population expansions. The nucleotide mismatch distribution curve exhibits a single peak pattern, further supporting the expansion events. Our findings hold potential for advancing epidemiological research and providing suggestions for effective strategies to mitigate the spread of CLas and control HLB.
Symbiotic associations between bacteria and ciliate protists are rather common. In particular, several cases were reported involving bacteria of the alphaproteobacterial lineage Rickettsiales, but the diversity, features, and interactions in these associations are still poorly understood. In this work, we characterized a novel ciliate protist strain originating from Brazil and its associated Rickettsiales endosymbiont by means of live and ultrastructural observations, as well as molecular phylogeny. Though with few morphological peculiarities, the ciliate was found to be phylogenetically affiliated with Pseudokeronopsis erythrina, a euryhaline species, which is consistent with its origin from a lagoon with significant spatial and seasonal salinity variations. The bacterial symbiont was assigned to “Candidatus Trichorickettsia mobilis subsp. hyperinfectiva”, being the first documented case of a Rickettsiales associated with urostylid ciliates. It resided in the host cytoplasm and bore flagella, similarly to many, but not all, conspecifics in other host species. These findings highlight the ability of “Candidatus Trichorickettsia” to infect multiple distinct host species and underline the importance of further studies on this system, in particular on flagella and their regulation, from a functional and also an evolutionary perspective, considering the phylogenetic proximity with the well-studied and non-flagellated Rickettsia.
Extensive search for new endosymbiotic systems in ciliates occasionally reverts us to the endosymbiotic bacteria described in the pre-molecular biology era and, hence, lacking molecular characterization. A pool of these endosymbionts has been referred to as a hidden bacterial biodiversity from the past. Here, we provide a description of one of such endosymbionts, retrieved from the ciliate Paramecium nephridiatum. This curve-shaped endosymbiont (CS), which shared the host cytoplasm with recently described “Candidatus Megaira venefica”, was found in the same host and in the same geographic location as one of the formerly reported endosymbiotic bacteria and demonstrated similar morphology. Based on morphological data obtained with DIC, TEM and AFM and molecular characterization by means of sequencing 16S rRNA gene, we propose a novel genus, “Candidatus Mystax”, with a single species “Ca. Mystax nordicus”. Phylogenetic analysis placed this species in Holosporales, among Holospora-like bacteria. Contrary to all Holospora species and many other Holospora-like bacteria, such as “Candidatus Gortzia”, “Candidatus Paraholospora” or “Candidatus Hafkinia”, “Ca. Mystax nordicus” was never observed inside the host nucleus. “Ca. Mystax nordicus” lacked infectivity and killer effect. The striking peculiarity of this endosymbiont was its ability to form aggregates with the host mitochondria, which distinguishes it from Holospora and Holospora-like bacteria inhabiting paramecia.
Holospora-like bacteria (HLB) are obligate intracellular Alphaproteobacteria, inhabiting nuclei of Paramecium and other ciliates such as “Candidatus Hafkinia” is in Frontonia. The HLB clade is comprised of four genera, Holospora, Preeria, “Candidatus Gortzia”, and “Candidatus Hafkinia”. These bacteria have a peculiar life cycle with two morphological forms and some degree of specificity to the host species and the type of nucleus they inhabit. Here we describe a novel species of HLB—“Candidatus Gortzia yakutica” sp. nov.—a symbiont from the macronucleus of Paramecium putrinum, the first described HLB for this Paramecium species. The new endosymbiont shows morphological similarities with other HLB. The phylogenetic analysis of the SSU rRNA gene places it into the “Candidatus Gortzia” clade.