Jain et al.
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions®
Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus
Agronomy and Crop Science
- The lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria trigger a nitrosative and oxidative burst in both animals and plants during pathogen invasion. Liberibacter crescens strain BT-1 is a surrogate for functional genomic studies of the uncultured pathogenic ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’ spp. that are associated with severe diseases such as citrus greening and potato zebra chip. Structural determination of L. crescens LPS revealed the presence of a very long chain fatty acid modification. L. crescens LPS pretreatment suppressed growth of Xanthomonas perforans on nonhost tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) and X. citri subsp. citri on host orange (Citrus sinensis), confirming bioactivity of L. crescens LPS in activation of systemic acquired resistance (SAR). L. crescens LPS elicited a rapid burst of nitric oxide (NO) in suspension cultured tobacco cells. Pharmacological inhibitor assays confirmed that arginine-utilizing NO synthase (NOS) activity was the primary source of NO generation elicited by L. crescens LPS. LPS treatment also resulted in biological markers of NO-mediated SAR activation, including an increase in the glutathione pool, callose deposition, and activation of the salicylic acid and azelaic acid (AzA) signaling networks. Transient expression of ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ bacterioferritin comigratory protein (BCP) peroxiredoxin in tobacco compromised AzA signaling, a prerequisite for LPS-triggered SAR. Western blot analyses revealed that ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ BCP peroxiredoxin prevented peroxynitrite-mediated tyrosine nitration in tobacco. ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ BCP peroxiredoxin (i) attenuates NO-mediated SAR signaling and (ii) scavenges peroxynitrite radicals, which would facilitate repetitive cycles of ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ acquisition and transmission by fecund psyllids throughout the limited flush period in citrus. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license .