Two metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), GKL-01 and GKL-02, related to the family Thiotrichaceae have been assembled from the metagenome of bacterial mat obtained from a sulfide-rich thermal spring in the North Caucasus. Based on average amino acid identity (AAI) values and genome-based phylogeny, MAG GKL-01 represented a new genus within the Thiotrichaceae family. The GC content of the GKL-01 DNA (44%) differed significantly from that of other known members of the genus Thiothrix (50.1–55.6%). We proposed to assign GKL-01 to a new species and genus ‘Candidatus Thiocaldithrix dubininis’ gen. nov., sp. nov. GKL-01. The phylogenetic analysis and estimated distances between MAG GKL-02 and the genomes of the previously described species of the genus Thiothrix allowed assigning GKL-02 to a new species with the proposed name ‘Candidatus Thiothrix putei’ sp. nov. GKL-02 within the genus Thiothrix. Genome data first revealed the presence of both Na+-ATPases and H+-ATPases in several Thiothrix species. According to genomic analysis, bacteria GKL-01 and GKL-02 are metabolically versatile facultative aerobes capable of growing either chemolithoautotrophically or chemolithoheterotrophically in the presence of hydrogen sulfide and/or thiosulfate or chemoorganoheterotrophically.
The metagenome of foulings from sulfidic spring “Serovodorodny” (Tatarstan, Russia), where members of the genus Thiothrix was observed, was sequenced. Representatives of the phyla Gammaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Campilobacteriota dominated in the microbial community. The complete genome of Thiothrix sp. KT was assembled from the metagenome. It displayed 93.93–99.72% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity to other Thiothrix species. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) и digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) showed that the genome designated KT represents a new species within the genus Thiothrix, ‘Candidatus Thiothrix sulfatifontis’ sp. nov. KT. The taxonomic status has been determined of the strain Thiothrix sp. CT3, isolated about 30 years ago and not assigned to any of Thiothrix species due to high 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with related species (i.e., 98.8–99.4%). The complete genome sequence of strain CT3 was determined. The ANI between CT3 and other Thiothrix species was below 82%, and the dDDH values were less than 40%, indicating that strain CT3 belongs to a novel species, Thiothrix winogradskyi sp. nov. A genome analysis showed that both strains are chemo-organoheterotrophs, chemolithotrophs (in the presence of hydrogen sulfide and thiosulfate) and chemoautotrophs. For the first time, representatives of Thiothrix showed anaerobic growth in the presence of thiosulfate.
Two strains of filamentous, colorless sulfur bacteria were isolated from bacterial fouling in the outflow of hydrogen sulfide-containing waters from a coal mine (Thiothrix sp. Ku-5) and on the seashore of the White Sea (Thiothrix sp. AS). Metagenome-assembled genome (MAG) A52 was obtained from a sulfidic spring in the Volgograd region, Russia. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that all genomes represented the genus Thiothrix. Based on their average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization data these new isolates and the MAG represent three species within the genus Thiothrix with the proposed names Thiothrix subterranea sp. nov. Ku-5T, Thiothrix litoralis sp. nov. AST, and “Candidatus Thiothrix anitrata” sp. nov. A52. The complete genome sequences of Thiothrix fructosivorans QT and Thiothrix unzii A1T were determined. Complete genomes of seven Thiothrix isolates, as well as two MAGs, were used for pangenome analysis. The Thiothrix core genome consisted of 1,355 genes, including ones for the glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the aerobic respiratory chain, and the Calvin cycle of carbon fixation. Genes for dissimilatory oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds, namely the branched SOX system (SoxAXBYZ), direct (soeABC) and indirect (aprAB, sat) pathways of sulfite oxidation, sulfur oxidation complex Dsr (dsrABEFHCEMKLJONR), sulfide oxidation systems SQR (sqrA, sqrF), and FCSD (fccAB) were found in the core genome. Genomes differ in the set of genes for dissimilatory reduction of nitrogen compounds, nitrogen fixation, and the presence of various types of RuBisCO.