Pythium terrestris, Pythium spinosum, and ‘Candidatus Pythium huanghuaiense’ are closely related species and important pathogens of soybean that cause root rot. However, the sequences of commonly used molecular markers, such as rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 and cytochrome oxidase 1 gene, are similar among these species, making it difficult to design species-specific primers for loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays. The genome sequences of these species are also currently unavailable. Based on a comparative genomic analysis and de novo RNA-sequencing transcript assemblies, we identified and cloned the sequences of the M90 gene, a conserved but highly polymorphic single-copy gene encoding a Puf family RNA-binding protein among oomycetes. After primer design and screening, three LAMP assays were developed that specifically amplified the targeted DNA sequences in P. terrestris and P. spinosum at 62°C for 70 min and in ‘Ca. Pythium huanghuaiense’ at 62°C for 60 min. After adding SYBR Green I, a positive yellow-green color (under natural light) or intense green fluorescence (under ultraviolet light) was observed by the naked eye only in the presence of the target species. The minimum concentration of target DNA detected in all three LAMP assays was 100 pg·μl−1. The assays also successfully detected the target Pythium spp. with high accuracy and sensitivity from inoculated soybean seedlings and soils collected from soybean fields. This study provides a method for identification and cloning of candidate detection targets without a reference genome sequence and identified M90 as a novel specific target for molecular detection of three Pythium species causing soybean root rot.