The metagenome of foulings from sulfidic spring “Serovodorodny” (Tatarstan, Russia), where members of the genus Thiothrix was observed, was sequenced. Representatives of the phyla Gammaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Campilobacteriota dominated in the microbial community. The complete genome of Thiothrix sp. KT was assembled from the metagenome. It displayed 93.93–99.72% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity to other Thiothrix species. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) и digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) showed that the genome designated KT represents a new species within the genus Thiothrix, ‘Candidatus Thiothrix sulfatifontis’ sp. nov. KT. The taxonomic status has been determined of the strain Thiothrix sp. CT3, isolated about 30 years ago and not assigned to any of Thiothrix species due to high 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with related species (i.e., 98.8–99.4%). The complete genome sequence of strain CT3 was determined. The ANI between CT3 and other Thiothrix species was below 82%, and the dDDH values were less than 40%, indicating that strain CT3 belongs to a novel species, Thiothrix winogradskyi sp. nov. A genome analysis showed that both strains are chemo-organoheterotrophs, chemolithotrophs (in the presence of hydrogen sulfide and thiosulfate) and chemoautotrophs. For the first time, representatives of Thiothrix showed anaerobic growth in the presence of thiosulfate.
The recently described superphylum DPANN includes several phyla of uncultivated archaea with small cell sizes, reduced genomes, and limited metabolic capabilities. One of these phyla, “
. Micrarchaeota,” comprises an enigmatic group of archaea found in acid mine drainage environments, the archaeal Richmond Mine acidophilic nanoorganisms (ARMAN) group. Analysis of their reduced genomes revealed the absence of key metabolic pathways consistent with their partner-associated lifestyle, and physical associations of ARMAN cells with their hosts were documented. However, “
. Micrarchaeota” include several lineages besides the ARMAN group found in nonacidic environments, and none of them have been characterized. Here, we report a complete genome of “
. Micrarchaeota” from a non-ARMAN lineage. Analysis of this genome revealed the presence of metabolic capacities lost in ARMAN genomes that could enable a free-living lifestyle. These results expand our understanding of genetic diversity, lifestyle, and evolution of “
The candidate phyla radiation is a large monophyletic lineage comprising unculturable bacterial taxa with small cell and genome sizes, mostly known from genomes obtained from environmental sources without cultivation. Here, we present the closed complete genome of a member of the superphylum Microgenomates obtained from the metagenome of a deep subsurface thermal aquifer. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the new bacterium, designated Ch65, represents a novel phylum-level lineage within the Microgenomates group, sibling to the candidate phylum Collierbacteria. The Ch65 genome has a highly unusual nucleotide composition with one strand of highly enriched in cytosine versus guanine throughout the whole length. Such nucleotide composition asymmetry, also detected in the members of Ca. Collierbacteria and Ca. Beckwithbacteria, suggests that most of the Ch65 chromosome is replicated in one direction. A genome analysis predicted that the Ch65 bacterium has fermentative metabolism and could produce acetate and lactate. It lacks respiratory capacity, as well as complete pathways for the biosynthesis of lipids, amino acids, and nucleotides. The Embden–Meyerhof glycolytic pathway and nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway are mostly complete, although glucokinase, 6-phosphofructokinase, and transaldolase were not found. The Ch65 bacterium lacks secreted glycoside hydrolases and conventional transporters for importing sugars and amino acids. Overall, the metabolic predictions imply that Ch65 adopts the lifestyle of a symbiont/parasite, or a scavenger, obtaining resources from the lysed microbial biomass. We propose the provisional taxonomic assignment ‘Candidatus Chazhemtobacterium aquaticus’, genus ‘Chazhemtobacterium‘, family ‘Chazhemtobacteraceae‘ in the Microgenomates group.
AbstractThermal ecosystems associated with underground coal combustion sites are rare and less studied than geothermal features. Here we analysed microbial communities of near-surface ground layer and bituminous substance in an open quarry heated by subsurface coal fire by metagenomic DNA sequencing. Taxonomic classification revealed dominance of only a few groups of Firmicutes. Near-complete genomes of three most abundant species, ‘Candidatus Carbobacillus altaicus’ AL32, Brockia lithotrophica AL31, and Hydrogenibacillus schlegelii AL33, were assembled. According to the genomic data, Ca. Carbobacillus altaicus AL32 is an aerobic heterotroph, while B. lithotrophica AL31 is a chemolithotrophic anaerobe assimilating CO2 via the Calvin cycle. H. schlegelii AL33 is an aerobe capable of both growth on organic compounds and carrying out CO2 fixation via the Calvin cycle. Phylogenetic analysis of the large subunit of RuBisCO of B. lithotrophica AL31 and H. schlegelii AL33 showed that it belongs to the type 1-E. All three Firmicutes species can gain energy from aerobic or anaerobic oxidation of molecular hydrogen, produced as a result of underground coal combustion along with other coal gases. We propose that thermophilic Firmicutes, whose spores can spread from their original geothermal habitats over long distances, are the first colonizers of this recently formed thermal ecosystem.