Powell, Charles A.


Publications (7)

Genetic Diversity of “ <i>Candidatus</i> Liberibacter asiaticus” Based on Four Hypervariable Genomic Regions in China

Citation
Gao et al. (2022). Microbiology Spectrum 10 (6)
Names
Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus
Subjects
Cell Biology Ecology General Immunology and Microbiology Genetics Infectious Diseases Microbiology (medical) Physiology
Abstract
The hypervariable genomic regions derived from 35 published C Las genomes were used to decipher the genetic diversity of C Las strains and identify 10 new strains with high variations in prophage regions. Characterizing these variations in the C Las bacteria might provide insight into their evolution and adaptation to host plants and insects in China.

Diversity and Plasticity of the Intracellular Plant Pathogen and Insect Symbiont “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” as Revealed by Hypervariable Prophage Genes with Intragenic Tandem Repeats

Citation
Zhou et al. (2011). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77 (18)
Names
Liberibacter Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus
Subjects
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Biotechnology Ecology Food Science
Abstract
ABSTRACT “ Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” is a psyllid-transmitted, phloem-limited alphaproteobacterium and the most prevalent species of “ Ca . Liberibacter” associated with a devastating worldwide citrus disease known as huanglongbing (HLB). Two related and hypervariable genes ( hyv I and hyv II ) were identified in the prophage regions of the Psy62 “ Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” genome. Sequence analyses of the hyv I and hyv II genes in 35 “ Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” DNA isolates collected globally revealed that the hyv I gene contains up to 12 nearly identical tandem repeats (NITRs, 132 bp) and 4 partial repeats, while hyv II contains up to 2 NITRs and 4 partial repeats and shares homology with hyv I . Frequent deletions or insertions of these repeats within the hyv I and hyv II genes were observed, none of which disrupted the open reading frames. Sequence conservation within the individual repeats but an extensive variation in repeat numbers, rearrangement, and the sequences flanking the repeat region indicate the diversity and plasticity of “ Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” bacterial populations in the world. These differences were found not only in samples of distinct geographical origins but also in samples from a single origin and even from a single “ Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus”-infected sample. This is the first evidence of different “ Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” populations coexisting in a single HLB-affected sample. The Florida “ Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” isolates contain both hyv I and hyv II , while all other global “ Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” isolates contain either one or the other. Interclade assignments of the putative Hyv I and Hyv II proteins from Florida isolates with other global isolates in phylogenetic trees imply multiple “ Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” populations in the world and a multisource introduction of the “ Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” bacterium into Florida.

Screening Molecules for Control of Citrus Huanglongbing Using an Optimized Regeneration System for ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’-Infected Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) Cuttings

Citation
Zhang et al. (2010). Phytopathology® 100 (3)
Names
Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus
Subjects
Agronomy and Crop Science Plant Science
Abstract
Citrus huanglongbing is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is associated with three different species of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’, of which ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ is the most widely distributed. An optimized system using ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’-infected periwinkle cuttings was developed to screen chemical compounds effective for controlling the bacterial population while simultaneously assessing their phytotoxicity. The optimal regeneration conditions were determined to be the use of vermiculite as a growth medium for the cuttings, and a fertilization routine using half-strength Murashige and Tucker medium supplemented with both naphthalene acetic acid (4 μg/ml) and indole-3-butyric acid (4 μg/ml). This system allowed a plant regeneration rate of 60.6% for ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’-infected cuttings in contrast to the &lt;1% regeneration rate with water alone. Two chemical agents, penicillin G sodium and 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide (DBNPA), were found to be effective at eliminating or suppressing the ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ bacterium in this periwinkle regeneration system. When treated with penicillin G sodium at 50 μg/ml, all plants regenerated from ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’-infected cuttings were ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ negative as determined by both nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR. In addition, DBNPA was also able to significantly reduce the percentage of ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’-positive plants and the titer of the ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ bacterium at 200 μl/liter.