AbstractAnaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) carry out anaerobic oxidation of methane, thus playing a crucial role in the methane cycle. Previous genomic evidence indicates that multi-heme c-type cytochromes (MHCs) may facilitate the extracellular electron transfer (EET) from ANME to different electron sinks. Here, we provide experimental evidence supporting cytochrome-mediated EET for the reduction of metals and electrodes by ‘Candidatus Methanoperedens nitroreducens’, an ANME acclimated to nitrate reduction. Ferrous iron-targeted fluorescent assays, metatranscriptomics, and single-cell imaging suggest that ‘Ca. M. nitroreducens’ uses surface-localized redox-active cytochromes for metal reduction. Electrochemical and Raman spectroscopic analyses also support the involvement of c-type cytochrome-mediated EET for electrode reduction. Furthermore, several genes encoding menaquinone cytochrome type-c oxidoreductases and extracellular MHCs are differentially expressed when different electron acceptors are used.