Microbiology (medical)


Publications (187)

Multi-Locus Sequencing Reveals Putative Novel Anaplasmataceae Agents, ‘Candidatus Ehrlichia dumleri’ and Anaplasma sp., in Ring-Tailed Coatis (Carnivora: Nasua nasua) from Urban Forested Fragments at Midwestern Brazil

Citation
Perles et al. (2022). Microorganisms 10 (12)
Names
Ca. Ehrlichia dumleri Ca. Anaplasma brasiliensis
Subjects
Microbiology Microbiology (medical) Virology
Abstract
The Anaplasmataceae family encompasses obligate intracellular α-proteobacteria of human and veterinary medicine importance. This study performed multi-locus sequencing to characterize Ehrlichia and Anaplasma in coati’s blood samples in Midwestern Brazil. Twenty-five samples (25/165—15.1%) were positive in the screening PCR based on the dsb gene of Ehrlichia spp. and were characterized using 16S rRNA, sodB, groEL, and gltA genes and the 23S-5S intergenic space region (ITS). Phylogenetic analyses based on all six molecular markers positioned the sequences into a new clade, with a common origin of Ehrlichia ruminantium. Haplotype analyses of 16S RNA sequences revealed the presence of two distinct Ehrlichia genotypes. Six samples (6/165, 3.6%) were positive in the screening nPCR for the 16S rRNA gene of Anaplasma spp. and were submitted to an additional PCR targeting the ITS for molecular characterization. Phylogenetic analyses based on both 16S rRNA gene and ITS positioned the Anaplasma sp. detected in the present study in a large clade with other Anaplasma sp. previously detected in ticks and wild animals and in a clade with ‘Candidatus Anaplasma brasiliensis’, respectively. Based on distinct molecular markers, the present work described a putative novel Anaplasmataceae agent, namely ‘Candidatus Ehrlichia dumleri’, and Anaplasma sp. closely related to the previously described ‘Candidatus Anaplasma brasiliensis’.

Genetic Diversity of “ <i>Candidatus</i> Liberibacter asiaticus” Based on Four Hypervariable Genomic Regions in China

Citation
Gao et al. (2022). Microbiology Spectrum
Names
Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus
Subjects
Cell Biology Ecology General Immunology and Microbiology Genetics Infectious Diseases Microbiology (medical) Physiology
Abstract
The hypervariable genomic regions derived from 35 published C Las genomes were used to decipher the genetic diversity of C Las strains and identify 10 new strains with high variations in prophage regions. Characterizing these variations in the C Las bacteria might provide insight into their evolution and adaptation to host plants and insects in China.

A serralysin-like protein of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus modulates components of the bacterial extracellular matrix

Citation
Garcia et al. (2022). Frontiers in Microbiology 13
Names
Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus Liberibacter
Subjects
Microbiology Microbiology (medical)
Abstract
Huanglongbing (HLB), the current major threat for Citrus species, is caused by intracellular alphaproteobacteria of the genus Candidatus Liberibacter (CaL), with CaL asiaticus (CLas) being the most prevalent species. This bacterium inhabits phloem cells and is transmitted by the psyllid Diaphorina citri. A gene encoding a putative serralysin-like metalloprotease (CLIBASIA_01345) was identified in the CLas genome. The expression levels of this gene were found to be higher in citrus leaves than in psyllids, suggesting a function for this protease in adaptation to the plant environment. Here, we study the putative role of CLas-serralysin (Las1345) as virulence factor. We first assayed whether Las1345 could be secreted by two different surrogate bacteria, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae A34 (A34) and Serratia marcescens. The protein was detected only in the cellular fraction of A34 and S. marcescens expressing Las1345, and increased protease activity of those bacteria by 2.55 and 4.25-fold, respectively. In contrast, Las1345 expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves did not show protease activity nor alterations in the cell membrane, suggesting that Las1345 do not function as a protease in the plant cell. Las1345 expression negatively regulated cell motility, exopolysaccharide production, and biofilm formation in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc). This bacterial phenotype was correlated with reduced growth and survival on leaf surfaces as well as reduced disease symptoms in N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis. These results support a model where Las1345 could modify extracellular components to adapt bacterial shape and appendages to the phloem environment, thus contributing to virulence.

Characterization of the Asian Citrus Psyllid-‘Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus’ Pathosystem in Saudi Arabia Reveals Two Predominant CLas Lineages and One Asian Citrus Psyllid Vector Haplotype

Citation
Ibrahim et al. (2022). Microorganisms 10 (10)
Names
Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus Liberibacter
Subjects
Microbiology Microbiology (medical) Virology
Abstract
In Saudi Arabia (SA), the citrus greening disease is caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri. The origin and route(s) of the ACP-CLas pathosystem invasion in SA have not been studied. Adult ACP were collected from citrus trees in SA and differentiated by analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) and nuclear copper transporting protein (atox1) genes. A phylogenetic analysis of the Wolbachia spp. surface protein (wsp) gene was used to identify the ACP-associated Wolbachia spp. A phylogenetic analysis of the atox1 and mtCOI gene sequences revealed one predominant ACP haplotype most closely related to the Indian subcontinent founder populations. The detection and identification of CLas in citrus trees were carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene. The CLas-integrated prophage genomes were sequenced, annotated, and used to differentiate CLas populations. The ML and ASTRAL trees reconstructed with prophages type 1 and 2 genome sequences, separately and concatenated, resolved two major lineages, CLas-1 and -2. The CLas-1 clade, reported here for the first time, consisted of isolates from SA isolates and Pakistan. The CLas-2 sequences formed two groups, CLas-2-1 and -2-2, previously the ‘Asiatic’ and ‘Floridian’ strains, respectively. Members of CLas-2-1 originated from Southeast Asia, the USA, and other worldwide locations, while CLas-2-2 was identified only in Florida. This study provides the first snapshot into the status of the ACP-CLas pathosystem in SA. In addition, the results provide new insights into the pathosystem coevolution and global invasion histories of two ACP-CLas lineages with a predicted center of origin in South and Southeast Asia, respectively.

‘Candidatus Mycoplasma Haemoalbiventris’ and Tick-Borne Pathogens in Black-Eared Opossum (Didelphis aurita) from Southeastern Brazil

Citation
Orozco et al. (2022). Microorganisms 10 (10)
Names
Ca. Mycoplasma haemoalbiventris Mycoplasma
Subjects
Microbiology Microbiology (medical) Virology
Abstract
The black-eared opossum (Didelphis aurita) is a South American synanthropic marsupial. The presence of opossums in domestic spaces is relevant in the One-Health context since they are hosts of pathogens and ectoparasites that may affect the health of domestic animals and humans. In this study, we aim to determine the occurrence of hemoplasmas and selected tick-borne pathogens in free-ranging black-eared opossums, along with their molecular characterization, hematological and biochemical evaluation and factors associated with infection, in the municipality of Viçosa, State of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Thirty black-eared opossums were trapped between March 2021 and June 2022. Ectoparasites were collected. Hematological and biochemical analyses were performed. DNA from EDTA-blood samples were analyzed by PCR and qPCR assays. By molecular analyses, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemoalbiventris’ was the most prevalent hemoparasite (73.3%), followed by Hepatozoon sp. (22.2%). Significant differences were observed in the number of platelets, and in the concentration of protein and globulins in the animals infected by ‘Ca. M. haemoalbiventris’ when compared with the negative group. This is the first report of ‘Ca. M. haemoalbiventris’ infection in D. aurita.

Proteomic and bioinformatic analyses of proteins in the outer membrane and extracellular compartments and outer membrane vesicles of Candidatus Liberibacter species

Citation
Huang et al. (2022). Frontiers in Microbiology 13
Names
Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus Liberibacter
Subjects
Microbiology Microbiology (medical)
Abstract
Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most devastating citrus disease in the world. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is the prevalent HLB pathogen, which is yet to be cultivated. A recent study demonstrates that Las does not contain pathogenicity factors that are directly responsible for HLB symptoms. Instead, Las triggers systemic and chronic immune responses, representing a pathogen-triggered immune disease. Importantly, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causes systemic cell death of phloem tissues, thus causing HLB symptoms. Because Las resides in the phloem tissues, it is expected that phloem cell might recognize outer membrane proteins, outer membrane vesicle (OMV) proteins and extracellular proteins of Las to contribute to the immune responses. Because Las has not been cultivated, we used Liberibacter crescens (Lcr) as a surrogate to identify proteins in the OM fraction, OMV proteins and extracellular proteins by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). We observed OMVs of Lcr under scanning electron microscope, representing the first experimental evidence that Liberibacter can deliver proteins to the extracellular compartment. In addition, we also further analyzed LC–MS/MS data using bioinformatic tools. Our study provides valuable information regarding the biology of Ca. Liberibacter species and identifies many putative proteins that may interact with host proteins in the phloem tissues.

SeqCode: a nomenclatural code for prokaryotes described from sequence data

Citation
Hedlund et al. (2022). Nature Microbiology
Names
“Kryptoniales” “Kryptoniia” “Kryptoniaceae” “Kryptonium mobile”
Subjects
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Cell Biology Genetics Immunology Microbiology Microbiology (medical)
Abstract
AbstractMost prokaryotes are not available as pure cultures and therefore ineligible for naming under the rules and recommendations of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP). Here we summarize the development of the SeqCode, a code of nomenclature under which genome sequences serve as nomenclatural types. This code enables valid publication of names of prokaryotes based upon isolate genome, metagenome-assembled genome or single-amplified genome sequences. Otherwise, it is similar to the ICNP with regard to the formation of names and rules of priority. It operates through the SeqCode Registry (https://seqco.de/), a registration portal through which names and nomenclatural types are registered, validated and linked to metadata. We describe the two paths currently available within SeqCode to register and validate names, including Candidatus names, and provide examples for both. Recommendations on minimal standards for DNA sequences are provided. Thus, the SeqCode provides a reproducible and objective framework for the nomenclature of all prokaryotes regardless of cultivability and facilitates communication across microbiological disciplines.

Detection and Multigene Typing of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’-Related Strains Infecting Tomato and Potato Plants in Different Regions of Turkey

Citation
Çağlar, Şimşek (2022). Pathogens 11 (9)
Names
Ca. Phytoplasma solani
Subjects
General Immunology and Microbiology Immunology and Allergy Infectious Diseases Microbiology (medical) Molecular Biology
Abstract
‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ (‘Ca. P. solani’) is a crop pathogen that is a member of the 16SrXII-A ribosomal subgroup. It is also known as stolbur phytoplasma and causes yield losses in several important crops, especially in Solanaceous crops. Different strains of the pathogen are regularly reported all over the world, particularly in the Mediterranean region. In this study, the determination of genetic diversity for the pathogen infecting tomatoes and potatoes was carried out by using multilocus sequence typing analysis for the Tuf, SecY, and Vmp1 genes to gain insight into the epidemiology of ‘Ca. P. solani’ in Turkey. Genetic diversity of the phytoplasmas was investigated by sequence-based phylogenetic analyses and in silico RFLP analysis of related genes. It was determined that all ‘Ca. P. solani’-related strains infecting tomatoes and potatoes were tuf-b, which is linked to field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.). Tomato or potato-infecting ‘Ca. P. solani’-related strains showed similarities with each other; however, the isolates collected from different plants showed genetic differences in terms of the SecY gene. This study indicates that the highest genetic variability of collected samples was found in the Vmp1 gene. RsaI-RFLP analysis of TYPH10F/R amplicons showed that potato-infecting ‘Ca. P. solani’-related strains were found to be similar to some existing V types. However, the V-type of tomato-infecting isolates is not similar to any previously reported V-type. The results indicate that there could be an important genetic diversity of ‘Ca. P. solani’-related phytoplasmas in Turkey. This could indicate various ways in which the pathogen has adapted to the two host plants as a consequence of the various Vmp1 gene rearrangements seen in these two plant hosts. Obtained results also indicate that the epidemiology of ‘Ca. P. solani’-related phytoplasmas in the tomato and potato agroecosystem may be better understood with the use of molecular data on the complex of vmp-types.