The family Anaplasmataceae includes tick-borne bacteria of major public and veterinary health interest, as best illustrated by members of the genera Anaplasma and Ehrlichia. Recent epidemiological surveys have also reported on the presence of a novel putative genus in the Anaplasmataceae, Candidatus Allocryptoplasma, previously described as Candidatus Cryptoplasma in the western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus. However, the genetic diversity of Ca. Allocryptoplasma and its phylogenetic relationship with other Anaplasmataceae remain unclear. In this study, we developed a multi-locus sequence typing approach, examining the DNA sequence variation at five genes of Ca. Allocryptoplasma found in ticks. Combining this multi-locus sequence typing and genetic data available on public databases, we found that substantial genetic diversity of Ca. Allocryptoplasma is present in Ixodes, Amblyomma and Haemaphysalis spp. ticks on most continents. Further analyses confirmed that the Ca. Allocryptoplasma of ticks, the Ca. Allocryptoplasma of lizards and some Anaplasma-like bacteria of wild mice cluster into a monophyletic genus, divergent from all other genera of the family Anaplasmataceae. Candidatus Allocryptoplasma appears as a sister genus of Anaplasma and, with the genera Ehrlichia and Neoehrlichia, they form a monophyletic subgroup of Anaplasmataceae associated with tick-borne diseases. The detection of genetically distinct Ca. Allocryptoplasma in ticks of significant medical or veterinary interest supports the hypothesis that it is an emergent genus of tick-borne pathogens of general concern.
This study presents the molecular detection of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae and Ehrlichia sp. in Amblyomma pseudoconcolor Aragão, 1908 (Acari: Ixodidae) collected on a large hairy armadillo (Chaetophractus villosus (Desmarest, 1804)). On 12 October 2020, a specimen of C. villosus was found dead on the road in Río Negro province, Argentina. Molecular detection of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia agents was performed amplifying the gltA and 16S rRNA gene, respectively. One tick, determined morphologically and genetically as A. pseudoconcolor, was collected on C. villosus. The rickettsial agent detected in A. pseudoconcolor was identified as Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. The Ehrlichia sp. strain showed high sequence similarity to different uncultured Ehrlichia sp. detected in horses, capybaras and Ixodes ornithorhynchi from Nicaragua, Brazil and Australia, respectively. The results of this study and previous findings suggest that A. pseudoconcolor may be a potential vector of some Rickettsia and Ehrlichia bacteria of unknown pathogenicity.
Objetivo. Informe sobre especies de garrapatas que parasitan a los humanos en un área del bioma semiárido de Caatinga, noreste de Brasil, con nota de infección por rickettsias. Materiales y métodos. Todas las garrapatas se identificaron morfológicamente con estereomicroscopio. Algunas de las garrapatas recolectadas se analizaron molecularmente para detectar la presencia de ADN de bacterias del género Rickettsia. Las garrapatas se sometieron individualmente a la extracción de ADN (gen de la citrato sintasa [gltA] y gen de la proteína de la membrana externa [ompA]). Resultados. Se recolectaron un total de 78 garrapatas en humanos, identificadas como adultos de Amblyomma parvum (62 hembras y 16 machos). De estas, 15 mujeres fueron infectadas por ‘Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae’. Conclusiones. El presente estudio confirma una zona más de riesgo humano de picaduras de garrapatas en Brasil, también de la rickettsia no patógena 'Ca. Rickettsia andeanae'
The aim of this study was to measure the serum proinflammatory (IL-12, GM-CSF & IFN-γ) to anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4) cytokine ratio, oxidant (MDA) level and antioxidant enzyme (SOD; GPx) activities after blood parasite infections. The blood and serum samples were obtained from 130 cattle and screened for identity of the infecting blood parasites by conventional PCR. The following blood parasite species were detected: Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos (70/130); Theileria orientalis (65/130); Theileria sinensis (32/130); Anaplasma marginale (49/130); Anaplasma platys (7/130); and Trypanosoma evansi (4/130). The GM-CSF/IL-10 ratio showed significantly higher values in all the symptomatic blood parasite infected cattle groups except for symptomatic A. platys infected cattle groups. Anti-inflammatory cytokine immune responses were notable findings in symptomatic and asymptomatic cattle infected with C. M. haemobos and T. orientalis characterized by low serum IL-12:IL-10, IFN-γ:IL-10, IL-12:IL-4 and IFN-γ:IL-4 (p < 0.05). Therefore, high serum GM-CSF:IL:10 in the symptomatic blood parasite infected cattle, low serum IL-12:IL-10, IFN-γ:IL-10, IL-12:IL-4 and IFN-γ:IL-4 ratios in asymptomatic cattle, high MDA level, and increased antioxidant enzyme activities could be useful predictive tools for outcome of natural blood parasite infections in cattle.