AbstractHuanglongbing (HLB), or Citrus Greening, is one of the most devastating diseases affecting agriculture today. Widespread throughout Citrus growing regions of the world, it has had severe economic consequences in all areas it has invaded. With no treatment available, management strategies focus on suppression and containment. Effective use of these costly control strategies relies on rapid and accurate identification of infected plants. Unfortunately, symptoms of the disease are slow to develop and indistinct from symptoms of other biotic/abiotic stressors. As a result, diagnosticians have focused on detecting the pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, by DNA-based detection strategies utilizing leaf midribs for sampling. Recent work has shown that fibrous root decline occurs in HLB-affected trees before symptom development among leaves. Moreover, the pathogen, Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus, has been shown to be more evenly distributed within roots than within the canopy. Motivated by these observations, a longitudinal study of young asymptomatic trees was established to observe the spread of disease through time and test the relative effectiveness of leaf- and root-based detection strategies. Detection of the pathogen occurred earlier, more consistently, and more often in root samples than in leaf samples. Moreover, little influence of geography or host variety was found on the probability of detection.
AbstractThe phloem limited bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) is associated with disease in Solanaceous and Apiaceous crops. This bacterium has previously been found in the UK in Trioza anthrisci, but its impact on UK crops is unknown. Psyllid and Lso diversity and distribution among fields across the major carrot growing areas of Scotland were assessed using real-time PCR and DNA barcoding techniques. Four Lso haplotypes were found: C, U, and two novel haplotypes. Lso haplotype C was also found in a small percentage of asymptomatic carrot plants (9.34%, n = 139) from a field in Milnathort where known vectors of this haplotype were not found. This is the first report of Lso in cultivated carrot growing in the UK and raises concern for the carrot and potato growing industry regarding the potential spread of new and existing Lso haplotypes into crops. Trioza anthrisci was found present only in sites in Elgin, Moray with 100% of individuals harbouring Lso haplotype C. Lso haplotype U was found at all sites infecting Trioza urticae and at some sites infecting Urtica dioica with 77.55% and 24.37% average infection, respectively. The two novel haplotypes were found in Craspedolepta nebulosa and Craspedolepta subpunctata and named Cras1 and Cras2. This is the first report of Lso in psyllids from the Aphalaridae. These new haplotypes were most closely related to Lso haplotype H recently found in carrot and parsnip. Lso was also detected in several weed plants surrounding carrot and parsnip fields. These included two Apiaceous species Aegropodium podagraria (hap undetermined) and Anthriscus sylvestris (hap C); one Gallium sp. (Rubiaceae) (hap undetermined); and Chenopodium album (Amaranthaceae) (hap undetermined).
Abstract‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) is a pathogen of solanaceous crops. Two haplotypes of Lso (LsoA and LsoB) are present in North America; both are transmitted by the tomato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc), in a circulative and propagative manner and cause damaging plant diseases (e.g. Zebra chip in potatoes). In this study, we investigated the acquisition and transmission of LsoA or LsoB by the tomato psyllid. We quantified the titer of Lso haplotype A and B in adult psyllid guts after several acquisition access periods (AAPs). We also performed sequential inoculation of tomato plants by adult psyllids following a 7-day AAP and compared the transmission of each Lso haplotype. The results indicated that LsoB population increased faster in the psyllid gut than LsoA. Further, LsoB population plateaued after 12 days, while LsoA population increased slowly during the 16 day-period evaluated. Additionally, LsoB had a shorter latent period and higher transmission rate than LsoA following a 7 day-AAP: LsoB was first transmitted by the adult psyllids between 17 and 21 days following the beginning of the AAP, while LsoA was first transmitted between 21 and 25 days after the beginning of the AAP. Overall, our data suggest that the two Lso haplotypes have distinct acquisition and transmission rates. The information provided in this study will improve our understanding of the biology of Lso acquisition and transmission as well as its relationship with the tomato psyllid at the gut interface.
We report on cultivation and characterization of an association between
Nanohalobium constans and its host, the chitinotrophic haloarchaeon
LC1Hm, obtained from a crystallizer pond of marine solar salterns. High-quality nanohaloarchael genome sequence in conjunction with electron- and fluorescence microscopy, growth analysis, and proteomic and metabolomic data revealed mutually beneficial interactions between two archaea, and allowed dissection of the mechanisms for these interactions. Owing to their ubiquity in hypersaline environments, Nanohaloarchaeota may play a role in carbon turnover and ecosystem functioning, yet insights into the nature of this have been lacking. Here, we provide evidence that nanohaloarchaea can expand the range of available substrates for the haloarchaeon, suggesting that the ectosymbiont increases the metabolic capacity of the host.
AbstractThe recently discovered DPANN archaea are a potentially deep-branching, monophyletic radiation of organisms with small cells and genomes. However, the monophyly and early emergence of the various DPANN clades and their role in life’s evolution are debated. Here, we reconstructed and analysed genomes of an uncharacterized archaeal phylum (Candidatus Undinarchaeota), revealing that its members have small genomes and, while potentially being able to conserve energy through fermentation, likely depend on partner organisms for the acquisition of certain metabolites. Our phylogenomic analyses robustly place Undinarchaeota as an independent lineage between two highly supported ‘DPANN’ clans. Further, our analyses suggest that DPANN have exchanged core genes with their hosts, adding to the difficulty of placing DPANN in the tree of life. This pattern can be sufficiently dominant to allow identifying known symbiont-host clades based on routes of gene transfer. Together, our work provides insights into the origins and evolution of DPANN and their hosts.
AbstractAnaplasmataceae agents are obligatory intracellular Gram-negative α-proteobacteria that are transmitted mostly by arthropod vectors. Although mammals of the Superorder Xenarthra (sloths, anteaters, and armadillos) have been implicated as reservoirs for several zoonotic agents, only few studies have sought to detect Anaplasmataceae agents in this group of mammals. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and genetic diversity of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in blood and spleen samples of free-living Xenarthra from four different states in Brazil (São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rondônia, and Pará). Nested and conventional PCR screening assays were performed to detect the rrs and dsb genes of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp., respectively. The assays were positive in 27.57% (91/330) of the Anaplasma spp. and 24.54% (81/330) of the Ehrlichia spp. Of the 91 positive Anaplasma spp. samples, 56.04% were positive in a conventional PCR assay targeting the 23S–5S intergenic region. Phylogenetic and distance analyses based on the rrs gene allocated Anaplasma sequences from sloths captured in Rondônia and Pará states in a single clade, which was closely related to the A. marginale, A. ovis, and A. capra clades. The sequences detected in southern anteaters from São Paulo were allocated in a clade closely related to sequences of Anaplasma spp. detected in Nasua nasua, Leopardus pardalis, and Cerdocyon thous in Brazil. These sequences were positioned close to A. odocoilei sequences. Genotype analysis corroborated previous findings and demonstrated the circulation of two distinct Anaplasma genotypes in animals from north and southeast Brazil. The first genotype was new. The second was previously detected in N. nasua in Mato Grosso do Sul state. The intergenic region analyses also demonstrated two distinct genotypes of Anaplasma. The sequences detected in Xenarthra from Pará and Rondônia states were closely related to those in A. marginale, A. ovis, and A. capra. Anaplasma spp. sequences detected in Xenarthra from São Paulo and were allocated close to those in A. phagocytophilum. The analyses based on the dsb gene grouped the Ehrlichia spp. sequences with sequences of E. canis (São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Pará) and E. minasensis (Rondônia and Pará). The data indicate the occurrence of E. canis and E. minasensis and two possible new Candidatus species of Anaplasma spp. in free-living mammals of the Superorder Xenarthra in Brazil.