Horticulture


Publications (170)

SÍNTOMAS FOLIARES, BIOMASA Y CALIDAD DE TUBÉRCULO DE GENOTIPOS DE PAPA INOCULADOS CON Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum

Citation
Hidalgo-Gómez et al. (2022). Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana 45 (3)
Names
Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum
Subjects
Agronomy and Crop Science Genetics Horticulture Plant Science
Abstract
Las variedades de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) producidas en México son susceptibles a Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (CaLso), causante de la enfermedad conocida como ‘manchado interno de la pulpa’, por lo que se requiere conocer la respuesta de genotipos experimentales a la bacteria. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto de la infección de los haplotipos LsoA + LsoB de CaLso en el follaje, la biomasa seca y la calidad de tubérculo de papa, variedad Fianna, una colecta de Solanum demissum y los clones experimentales T90-1-63 y T05-13-21 de Solanum spp. El manchado interno de la pulpa del tubérculo se determinó mediante análisis de imágenes de tubérculos. Las plantas de Fianna mostraron la mayor severidad de daño foliar; en cambio, los clones experimentales presentaron 17 % menos daño foliar que Fianna y 8 % más daño foliar que S. demissum. Este último fue el genotipo con la mayor biomasa seca de hoja y produjo tubérculos de un tamaño pequeño; las plantas infectadas de S. demissum presentaron mayor número de tubérculos y mayor rendimiento de tubérculo fresco que las plantas sin inoculación, aunque tuvieron la menor proporción de superficie sana del tubérculo. El clon T90-1-63 presentó los porcentajes más altos de superficie sana de tubérculo (> 79 %) y las menores intensidades del manchado interno de la pulpa del tubérculo.

First Report of ‘<i>Candidatus</i> Phytoplasma brasiliense’ in North America and in a New Host, Globe Sedge (<i>Cyperus globulosus</i>)

Citation
Di Lella et al. (2022). Plant Health Progress
Names
Ca. Phytoplasma brasiliense
Subjects
Horticulture Plant Science
Abstract
A survey of weeds was undertaken in a palm nursery affected by lethal bronzing (LB) to identify a reservoir host of the causal phytoplasma. Three common species were identified; Urochloa maxima (Guineagrass), Sporobolus indicus (smut grass), and Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge) and sampled over a period of 2 years. Each species was sampled 36 times and all three species were negative for the LB phytoplasma. However, three specimens of C. esculentus tested positive for the phytoplasma species ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense’. These findings represent the first documented case of ‘Ca. P. brasiliense’ in North America, specifically in Florida, U.S.A., as well as a new host record for the phytoplasma and the first monocot host documented. Because of the impact this phytoplasma has on papaya and hibiscus in South America, it presents a unique threat to ornamental and agricultural sectors in south Florida. An area-wide survey for the phytoplasma and potential vectors is recommended.

Epidemiological Role of Dictyophara europaea (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) in the Transmission of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’

Citation
Cvrković et al. (2022). Horticulturae 8 (7)
Names
Ca. Phytoplasma solani
Subjects
Horticulture Plant Science
Abstract
Bois noir, an economically important disease of grapevine yellows that causes significant economic losses in wine production, is associated with ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ and transmitted to grapevines by cixiids Hyalesthes obsoletus and Reptalus panzeri. Polyphagous planthopper Dictyophara europaea, commonly found in natural habitats, harbors phytoplasmas from distinct groups and is an alternative vector in the open epidemiological cycles of the Flavescence dorée phytoplasma in grapevine in European vineyards. This study addresses the role of D. europaea in the transmission cycle(s) of ‘Ca. P. solani’ among wild habitats, natural reservoir plants, and the vineyard agroecosystem using MLSA and transmission trials with naturally infected adults to grapevine and Catharanthus roseus. The infection rates of D. europaea ranged from 7% to 13% in diverse locations, while reservoir herbaceous plants were infected in the amount of 29%. A total of 13 CaPsol MLSA genotypes were detected in D. europaea (7) and plants (8). Nine of them corresponded to previously identified genotypes. Two new genotypes were found in D. europaea (tuf-b1/S1/V14/Rqg50-sv1 and tuf-b1/S18/V14/Rqg50-sv1) and one in Convolvulus arvensis (tuf-b1/S1/V2-TA/Rqg31-sv1), whereas one was shared by two hosts, Crepis foetida and Daucus carota (tuf-b1/S1/V2-TA/STOL-sv1). Naturally infected D. europaea successfully transmitted the tuf-b1/S1/V2-TA/STOL type to five grapevines and six periwinkles, tuf-b1/S1/V2-TA/Rqg31 to one grapevine, and tuf-b1/S1/V2-TA/Rqg50 to one periwinkle, indicating that D. europaea is an intermediate vector in CaPsol epidemiological cycles.

Optimization of vqPCR for Reliable Detection of Viable Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in Citrus

Citation
Louzada et al. (2022). HortScience 57 (6)
Names
Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus Liberibacter
Subjects
Horticulture
Abstract
Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, also known as “citrus greening”), an important disease worldwide, is associated with three species of phloem-limited Candidatus liberibacter, of which Candidatus L. asiaticus (CLas) is the predominant one that has severely affected citrus production. TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (TM) has been the standard and very efficient method to diagnose several strains of Candidatus Liberibacter in citrus; however, it detects total bacteria and is unable to differentiate dead from live Liberibacter. The detection of only live bacteria is essential for testing methods of control for this important citrus disease. It is well known that ethidium monoazide and propidium monoazide (PMA) are compounds that supposedly enter only dead or membrane-damaged bacteria, intercalate the DNA strand, and make the DNA unavailable for amplification by PCR. These compounds are widely used when extracting the plant DNA to detect only live bacteria. In this research, we tested primers amplifying products from 79 to 1160 bp in TM and SYBR Green real-time PCR (SG) and PMA as DNA intercalating compound. Specifically, primers amplifying a 500-bp amplicon in SG provided the most reliable live-only detection, whereas those producing a smaller amplicon were unable to distinguish between live and dead. This is the first report of testing primers amplifying various amplicon sizes for the detection of only live CLas cells in citrus.