Huanglongbing (HLB) pathogen Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) brings a great concern about the phloem nutrient transport in diseased plants. There is an urgent need to find the best management strategies to reduce the losses in the citrus industry worldwide. Endophytic bacteria are negatively affected by CLas pathogen, and these endophytes are associated with improved availability of nutrients and pathogen resistance. This study underpins the relationship between CLas pathogen, endophyte population and nutrients availability in citrus plants. The citrus plants were treated with Bacillus subtilis L1-21 and Hoagland solution to find out synergism efficacy to mitigate citrus HLB. We showed that citrus shoots in the presence of 50% Hoagland solution displayed maximum number of endophytes with 6.28 × 103 to 3.04 × 105 CFU/g. Among 50 candidate strains, B. subtilis L1-21 emerged as potential antagonist against surrogate strain Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. The citrus half-leaf method identified that application of endophyte L1-21 with 50% Hoagland solution successfully reduces the CLas abundance. We point out that this combination results in a higher number of endophytes population with 2.52 × 104 to 9.11 × 106 CFU/g after 60 days, and reduces CLas pathogen abundance in asymptomatic HLB plants. In HLB symptomatic citrus plants, B. subtilis L1-21 potentially increases the endophyte population from 1.11 × 104 to 5.26 × 107 CFU/g in the presence of Hoagland solution, and pathogen abundance was reduced from 9.51 × 105 to 1.06 × 104 copies/g. Altogether, we suggested that the presence of endophyte L1-21 with Hoagland solution is more effective in HLB asymptomatic citrus plants, but a slight reduction of pathogen was observed in symptomatic plants. The findings revealed the role of indigenous citrus endophyte B. subtilis L1-21 along with other nutrients in the reduction of CLas pathogen abundance inside symptomatic and asymptomatic plants in citrus endophyte–nutrient–pathogen interplay.
A 59-year-old female living in Rayong Province, eastern Thailand, presented with painless, right upper eyelid nodule for 3 months. Upon removal of the eyelid mass, a well-circumscribed, firm globular mass with diameter about 1 cm was found. Histopathological examination revealed an immature female dirofilarial worm reminiscent of Dirofilaria repens, characterized by prominent sharp longitudinal ridges at external surface of the cuticle. Analysis of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequence showed that the worm belongs to Candidatus Dirofilaria hongkongensis. It is likely that some infections previously reported as D. repens based on histological examination may have actually been due to Candidatus D. hongkongensis.
Anaplasmosis, caused by infection with bacteria of the genus Anaplasma, is an important veterinary and zoonotic disease. Transmission by ticks has been characterized but little is known about non-tick vectors of livestock anaplasmosis. This study investigated the presence of Anaplasma spp. in camels in northern Kenya and whether the hematophagous camel ked, Hippobosca camelina, acts as a vector. Camels (n = 976) and > 10,000 keds were sampled over a three-year study period and the presence of Anaplasma species was determined by PCR-based assays targeting the Anaplasmataceae 16S rRNA gene. Camels were infected by a single species of Anaplasma, ‘Candidatus Anaplasma camelii’, with infection rates ranging from 63–78% during the dry (September 2017), wet (June-July 2018), and late wet seasons (July-August 2019). 10–29% of camel keds harbored ‘Ca. Anaplasma camelii’ acquired from infected camels during blood feeding. We determined that Anaplasma-positive camel keds could transmit ‘Ca. Anaplasma camelii’ to mice and rabbits via blood-feeding. We show competence in pathogen transmission and subsequent infection in mice and rabbits by microscopic observation in blood smears and by PCR. Transmission of ‘Ca. Anaplasma camelii’ to mice (8–47%) and rabbits (25%) occurred readily after ked bites. Hence, we demonstrate, for the first time, the potential of H. camelina as a vector of anaplasmosis. This key finding provides the rationale for establishing ked control programmes for improvement of livestock and human health.
Understanding how phytoplasmas move and multiply within the host plant is fundamental for plant–pathogen interaction studies. In recent years, the tomato has been used as a model plant to study this type of interaction. In the present work, we investigated the distribution and multiplication dynamics of one strain of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma (Ca. P.) solani’ (16SrXII-A) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., cv. Micro-Tom) plants. We obtained infected plants by grafting, a fast and effective method to maintain phytoplasma infection. In planta spread and multiplication of ‘Ca. P. solani’ was monitored over time using qualitative and quantitative qPCR. Root, apical shoot, lower leaves, and upper leaves were sampled at each sampling time. We hypothesized that ‘Ca. P. solani’ from the grafting site reached firstly the highest leaf, the apex and the roots; subsequently, the phytoplasmas spread to the rest of the upper leaves and then progressively to the lower leaves. Significant differences were found in ‘Ca. P. solani’ titer among different plant tissues. In particular, the concentration of phytoplasma in the roots was significantly higher than that in the other plant compartments in almost all the sampling dates. Since the roots show rapid colonization and the highest concentration of phytoplasmas, they represent the ideal tissue to sample for an early, sensitive and robust diagnosis.
Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM) is an emerging tick-born pathogen and usually causes symptomatic infection only in immunocompromised patients. Apart from one described case found in the literature where cultivation was successful, all cases so far were diagnosed by using broad-range 16S rDNA PCR.
Our patient presented with a prolonged febrile state of unknown origin. Clinical presentation, extensive medical workup and classic microbiologic testing were non-conclusive. Several infectious agents and other causes for the febrile state were excluded. In the end, a broad-range 16S rDNA PCR was to be performed to confirm the diagnosis of CNM infection. Treatment was successful with doxycycline.
Due to the obscurity of the pathogen, diagnostic workup in CNM is prolonged and challenging. More awareness is need about this emerging infectious disease in countries with high prevalence of tick-borne diseases as standard microbiological methods are not successful in confirming the diagnosis.
A novel Borrelia species, Candidatus Borrelia javanense, was found in ectoparasite ticks, Amblyomma javanense, from Manis javanica pangolins seized in anti-smuggling operations in southern China. Overall, 12 tick samples in 227 (overall prevalence 5.3%) were positive for Candidatus B. javanense, 9 (5.1%) in 176 males, and 3 (5.9%) in 51 females. The phylogenetic analysis, based on the 16S rRNA gene and the flagellin gene sequences of the Borrelia sp., exhibited strong evidence that Candidatus B. javanense did not belong to the Lyme disease Borrelia group and the relapsing fever Borrelia group but another lineage of Borrelia. The discovery of the novel Borrelia species suggests that A. javanense may be the transmit vector, and the M. javanica pangolins should be considered a possible origin reservoir in the natural circulation of these new pathogens. To our knowledge, this is the first identification of a novel Borrelia species agent in A. javanense from pangolins. Whether the novel agent is pathogenic to humans is unknown and needs further research.