Little is known about the bacterial phylum “
Dependentiae,” because only three isolates have been reported. Here, I report the isolation and genome sequencing of a new member of this phylum, strain Noda2021. This is the fourth strain isolated from the phylum “
A large (47.75 ± 3.56 µm in diameter) Thiovulum bacterial strain forming white veils is described from a marine mangrove ecosystem. High sulfide concentrations (up to 8 mM of H2S) were measured on sunken organic matter (wood/bone debris) under laboratory conditions. This sulfur-oxidizing bacterium colonized the organic matter, forming a white veil. According to conventional scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations, bacterial cells are ovoid and slightly motile by numerous small flagella present on the cell surface. Large intracytoplasmic internal sulfur granules were observed, suggesting a sulfidic-based metabolism. Observations were confirmed by elemental sulfur distribution detected by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) analysis using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) on non-dehydrated samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial sequence of 16S rDNA obtained from purified fractions of this Epsilonproteobacteraeota strain indicates that this bacterium belongs to the Thiovulaceae cluster and could be one of the largest Thiovulum ever described. We propose to name this species Candidatus Thiovulum sp. strain imperiosus.
AbstractThe human gut microbiome plays an important role in health, but its archaeal diversity remains largely unexplored. In the present study, we report the analysis of 1,167 nonredundant archaeal genomes (608 high-quality genomes) recovered from human gastrointestinal tract, sampled across 24 countries and rural and urban populations. We identified previously undescribed taxa including 3 genera, 15 species and 52 strains. Based on distinct genomic features, we justify the split of the Methanobrevibacter smithii clade into two separate species, with one represented by the previously undescribed ‘CandidatusMethanobrevibacter intestini’. Patterns derived from 28,581 protein clusters showed significant associations with sociodemographic characteristics such as age groups and lifestyle. We additionally show that archaea are characterized by specific genomic and functional adaptations to the host and carry a complex virome. Our work expands our current understanding of the human archaeome and provides a large genome catalogue for future analyses to decipher its impact on human physiology.
Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening, is one of the most devastating citrus diseases worldwide. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is the most prevalent strain associated with HLB, which is yet to be cultured in vitro. None of the commercial citrus cultivars are resistant to HLB. The pathosystem of Ca. Liberibacter is complex and remains a mystery. In this review, we focus on the recent progress in genomic research on the pathogen, the interaction of host and CLas, and the influence of CLas infection on the transcripts, proteins, and metabolism of the host. We have also focused on the identification of candidate genes for CLas pathogenicity or the improvements of HLB tolerance in citrus. In the end, we propose potentially promising areas for mechanistic studies of CLas pathogenicity, defense regulators, and genetic improvement for HLB tolerance/resistance in the future.
The full genome of a
strain, U3.2.1, was obtained from enrichment cultures of percolation fen peat soil under methanogenic conditions, with methanol and hydrogen as the electron acceptor and donor, respectively. Metagenomic assembly of combined long-read and short-read sequences resulted in a 1.51-Mbp circular genome.
Here, we report the draft, nearly complete genome sequence of the human oral actinobacterium
strain ORNL0103, which was isolated in association with “
Saccharibacteria” HMT352 strain ORNL0105. The genome was sequenced using a combination of Pacific Biosciences and Illumina platforms and encodes 1,948 proteins and 60 RNAs.
A plethora of hot springs are found at the Los Azufres volcanic complex in Mexico, and studies are needed to determine their microbial genomic diversity. Here, we report a metagenome of hot spring sediments and a metagenome-assembled genome of “
Aramenus sulfurataquae.” This study reveals novel genomic sequences of
Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is one the causative agents of greening disease in citrus, an unccurable, devastating disease of citrus worldwide. CLas is vectored by Diaphorina citri, and the understanding of the molecular interplay between vector and pathogen will provide additional basis for the development and implementation of successful management strategies. We focused in the molecular interplay occurring in the gut of the vector, a major barrier for CLas invasion and colonization.
We investigated the differential expression of vector and CLas genes by analyzing a de novo reference metatranscriptome of the gut of adult psyllids fed of CLas-infected and healthy citrus plants for 1-2, 3-4 and 5-6 days. CLas regulates the immune response of the vector affecting the production of reactive species of oxygen and nitrogen, and the production of antimicrobial peptides. Moreover, CLas overexpressed peroxiredoxin, probably in a protective manner. The major transcript involved in immune expression was related to melanization, a CLIP-domain serine protease we believe participates in the wounding of epithelial cells damaged during infection, which is supported by the down-regulation of pangolin. We also detected that CLas modulates the gut peristalsis of psyllids through the down-regulation of titin, reducing the elimination of CLas with faeces. The up-regulation of the neuromodulator arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase implies CLas also interferes with the double brain-gut communication circuitry of the vector. CLas colonizes the gut by expressing two Type IVb pilin flp genes and several chaperones that can also function as adhesins. We hypothesized biofilm formation occurs by the expression of the cold shock protein of CLas.
The thorough detailed analysis of the transcritome of Ca. L. asiaticus and of D. citri at different time points of their interaction in the gut tissues of the host led to the identification of several host genes targeted for regulation by L. asiaticus, but also bacterial genes coding for potential effector proteins. The identified targets and effector proteins are potential targets for the development of new management strategies directed to interfere with the successful utilization of the psyllid vector by this pathogen.
Recent advances in sequencing technology promoted the blowout discovery of super tiny microbes in the
(DPANN) superphylum. However, the unculturable properties of the majority of microbes impeded our investigation of their behavior and symbiotic lifestyle in the corresponding community.