AbstractTaurine-respiring gut bacteria produce H2S with ambivalent impact on host health. We report the isolation and ecophysiological characterization of a taurine-respiring mouse gut bacterium. Taurinivorans muris strain LT0009 represents a new widespread species that differs from the human gut sulfidogen Bilophila wadsworthia in its sulfur metabolism pathways and host distribution. T. muris specializes in taurine respiration in vivo, seemingly unaffected by mouse diet and genotype, but is dependent on other bacteria for release of taurine from bile acids. Colonization of T. muris in gnotobiotic mice increased deconjugation of taurine-conjugated bile acids and transcriptional activity of a sulfur metabolism gene-encoding prophage in other commensals, and slightly decreased the abundance of Salmonella enterica, which showed reduced expression of galactonate catabolism genes. Re-analysis of metagenome data from a previous study further suggested that T. muris can contribute to protection against pathogens by the commensal mouse gut microbiota. Together, we show the realized physiological niche of a key murine gut sulfidogen and its interactions with selected gut microbiota members.
The almond, a commercially important tree nut crop worldwide, is native to the Mediterranean region. Stone fruit trees are affected by at least 14 ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’ species globally, among which ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’ is one of the most widespread phytoplasma infecting Prunus dulcis, causing aster yellows disease. Recently, almond plantations of Nauni region were consistently affected by phytoplasma, as evidenced by visible symptoms, fluorescent microscopic studies and molecular characterization. During several surveys from May to September 2020–2022, almond aster yellows phytoplasma disease showing symptoms such as chlorosis, inward rolling, reddening, scorching and decline with an incidence as high as 40%. Leaf samples were collected from symptomatic almond trees and the presence of phytoplasma was confirmed through fluorescent microscopic studies by employing DAPI (4, 6-diamino-2-phenylindole) that showed distinctive light blue flourescent phytoplasma bodies in phloem sieve tube elements. The presence of phytoplasma in symptomatic almond trees was further confirmed using nested PCR with specific primer pairs followed by amplification of 16S rDNA and 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer (IS) fragments. Sequencing and BLAST analysis of expected amplicon of the 16S rDNA gene confirmed that the almond phytoplasma in Himachal Pradesh was identical to the aster yellows group phytoplasma. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA almond phytoplasma also grouped ‘Prunus dulcis’ aster yellows phytoplasma within 16SrI-B subgroup showed 94% nucleotide identity with ‘Prunus dulcis’ phytoplasma PAEs3 and ‘Prunus dulcis’ phytoplasma PAE28 from Iran. This research presents the first host report of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’ infecting almonds in India, expanding the knowledge of the diversity and distribution of phytoplasma strains affecting almond trees globally.
In order to provide a better insight into the functional capacity of the human gut microbiome, we isolated a novel bacterium, “Candidatus Intestinicoccus colisanans” gen. nov. sp. nov., and performed whole genome sequencing. This study will provide new insights into the functional potential of this bacterium and its role in modulating host health and well-being. We expect that this data resource will be useful in providing additional insight into the diversity and functional potential of the human microbiome.
Here, we report the first draft genome sequences of “Candidatus Intestinicoccus colisanans” strains MH27-1 and MH27-2, recovered from faeces collected from healthy human donors. The genomes were sequenced using short-read Illumina technology and whole-genome-based comparisons and phylogenomics reconstruction indicate that “Candidatus Intestinicoccus colisanans” represents a novel genus and species within the family Acutalibacteraceae. Both genomes were estimated to be > 98% completed and to range in size from 2.9 to 3.3 Mb with a G + C content of approximately 51%. The gene repertoire of “Candidatus Intestinicoccus colisanans” indicate it is likely a saccharolytic gut bacterium.
AbstractMicrobes in marine sediments play crucial roles in global carbon and nutrient cycling. However, our understanding of microbial diversity and physiology on the ocean floor is limited. Here, we use phylogenomic analyses of thousands of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from coastal and deep-sea sediments to identify 55 MAGs that are phylogenetically distinct from previously described bacterial phyla. We propose that these MAGs belong to 4 novel bacterial phyla (Blakebacterota, Orphanbacterota, Arandabacterota, and Joyebacterota) and a previously proposed phylum (AABM5-125-24), all of them within the FCB superphylum. Comparison of their rRNA genes with public databases reveals that these phyla are globally distributed in different habitats, including marine, freshwater, and terrestrial environments. Genomic analyses suggest these organisms are capable of mediating key steps in sedimentary biogeochemistry, including anaerobic degradation of polysaccharides and proteins, and respiration of sulfur and nitrogen. Interestingly, these genomes code for an unusually high proportion (~9% on average, up to 20% per genome) of protein families lacking representatives in public databases. Genes encoding hundreds of these protein families colocalize with genes predicted to be involved in sulfur reduction, nitrogen cycling, energy conservation, and degradation of organic compounds. Our findings advance our understanding of bacterial diversity, the ecological roles of these bacteria, and potential links between novel gene families and metabolic processes in the oceans.
‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) is associated with the devastating citrus ‘greening’ disease. All attempts to achieve axenic growth and complete Koch’s postulates with CLas have failed to date, at best yielding complex cocultures with very low CLas titers detectable only by PCR. Reductive genome evolution has rendered all pathogenic ‘Ca. Liberibacter’ spp. deficient in multiple key biosynthetic, metabolic and structural pathways that are highly unlikely to be rescued in vitro by media supplementation alone. By contrast, Liberibacter crescens (Lcr) is axenically cultured and its genome is both syntenic and highly similar to CLas. Our objective is to achieve replicative axenic growth of CLas via addition of missing culturability-related Lcr genes.
Bioinformatic analyses identified 405 unique ORFs in Lcr but missing (or truncated) in all 24 sequenced CLas strains. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed and extended published EZ-Tn5 mutagenesis data, allowing elimination of 310 of these 405 genes as nonessential, leaving 95 experimentally validated Lcr genes as essential for CLas growth in axenic culture. Experimental conditions for conjugation of large GFP-expressing plasmids from Escherichia coli to Lcr were successfully established for the first time, providing a practical method for transfer of large groups of ‘essential’ Lcr genes to CLas.
AbstractThe Terrestrial Miscellaneous Euryarchaeota Group has been identified in various environments, and the single genome investigated thus far suggests that these archaea are anaerobic sulfite reducers. We assemble 35 new genomes from this group that, based on genome analysis, appear to possess aerobic and facultative anaerobic lifestyles and may oxidise rather than reduce sulfite. We propose naming this order (representing 16 genera) “Lutacidiplasmatales” due to their occurrence in various acidic environments and placement within the phylum Thermoplasmatota. Phylum-level analysis reveals that Thermoplasmatota evolution had been punctuated by several periods of high levels of novel gene family acquisition. Several essential metabolisms, such as aerobic respiration and acid tolerance, were likely acquired independently by divergent lineages through convergent evolution rather than inherited from a common ancestor. Ultimately, this study describes the terrestrially prevalent Lutacidiciplasmatales and highlights convergent evolution as an important driving force in the evolution of archaeal lineages.
AbstractTrace metals have been an important ingredient for life throughout Earth’s history. Here, we describe the genome-guided cultivation of a member of the elusive archaeal lineage Caldarchaeales (syn. Aigarchaeota), Wolframiiraptor gerlachensis, and its growth dependence on tungsten. A metagenome-assembled genome (MAG) of W. gerlachensis encodes putative tungsten membrane transport systems, as well as pathways for anaerobic oxidation of sugars probably mediated by tungsten-dependent ferredoxin oxidoreductases that are expressed during growth. Catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in-situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) show that W. gerlachensis preferentially assimilates xylose. Phylogenetic analyses of 78 high-quality Wolframiiraptoraceae MAGs from terrestrial and marine hydrothermal systems suggest that tungsten-associated enzymes were present in the last common ancestor of extant Wolframiiraptoraceae. Our observations imply a crucial role for tungsten-dependent metabolism in the origin and evolution of this lineage, and hint at a relic metabolic dependence on this trace metal in early anaerobic thermophiles.