Search results (147)


Naming the unnamed: over 65,000 Candidatus names for unnamed Archaea and Bacteria in the Genome Taxonomy Database

Citation
Pallen et al. (2022). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 72 (9)
Subjects
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics General Medicine Microbiology Modeling and Simulation
Abstract
Thousands of new bacterial and archaeal species and higher-level taxa are discovered each year through the analysis of genomes and metagenomes. The Genome Taxonomy Database (GTDB) provides hierarchical sequence-based descriptions and classifications for new and as-yet-unnamed taxa. However, bacterial nomenclature, as currently configured, cannot keep up with the need for new well-formed names. Instead, microbiologists have been forced to use hard-to-remember alphanumeric placeholder labels. Here, we exploit an approach to the generation of well-formed arbitrary Latinate names at a scale sufficient to name tens of thousands of unnamed taxa within GTDB. These newly created names represent an important resource for the microbiology community, facilitating communication between bioinformaticians, microbiologists and taxonomists, while populating the emerging landscape of microbial taxonomic and functional discovery with accessible and memorable linguistic labels.

Nanobdella aerobiophila gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermoacidophilic, obligate ectosymbiotic archaeon, and proposal of Nanobdellaceae fam. nov., Nanobdellales ord. nov. and Nanobdellia class. nov.

Citation
Kato et al. (2022). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 72 (8)
Names
Nanobdellia Nanobdellales Nanobdellaceae Nanobdella Nanobdella aerobiophila T
Subjects
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics General Medicine Microbiology
Abstract
A co-culture of a novel thermoacidophilic, obligate symbiotic archaeon, designated as strain MJ1T, with its specific host archaeon Metallosphaera sedula strain MJ1HA was obtained from a terrestrial hot spring in Japan. Strain MJ1T grew in the co-culture under aerobic conditions. Coccoid cells of strain MJ1T were 200–500 nm in diameter, and attached to the MJ1HA cells in the co-culture. The ranges and optima of the growth temperature and pH of strain MJ1T in the co-culture were 60–75 °C (optimum, 65–70 °C) and pH 1.0–4.0 (optimum, pH 2.5), respectively. Core lipids of dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGT)−3 and GDGT-4 were highly abundant in MJ1T cells concentrated from the co-culture. Strain MJ1T has a small genome (0.67 Mbp) lacking genes for biosynthesis of essential biomolecules, such as nucleotides, lipids and ATP. The genomic DNA G+C content was 24.9 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain MJ1T was most closely related to that of the cultivated species, ‘Nanopusillus acidilobi’ strain N7A (85.8 % similarity). Based on phylogenetic and physiological characteristics, we propose the name Nanobdella aerobiophila gen. nov., sp. nov. to accommodate the strain MJ1T (=JCM 33616T=DSM 111728T). In addition, we propose the names Nanobdellaceae fam. nov., Nanobdellales ord. nov., and Nanobdellia class. nov. to accommodate the novel genus.

Revision of the ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’ species description guidelines

Citation
Bertaccini et al. (2022). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 72 (4)
Names
Ca. Phytoplasma
Subjects
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics General Medicine Microbiology
Abstract
The genus ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’ was proposed to accommodate cell wall-less bacteria that are molecularly and biochemically incompletely characterized, and colonize plant phloem and insect vector tissues. This provisional classification is highly relevant due to its application in epidemiological and ecological studies, mainly aimed at keeping the severe phytoplasma plant diseases under control worldwide. Given the increasing discovery of molecular diversity within the genus ‘Ca. Phytoplasma’, the proposed guidelines were revised and clarified to accommodate those ‘Ca. Phytoplasma’ species strains sharing >98.65 % sequence identity of their full or nearly full 16S rRNA gene sequences, obtained with at least twofold coverage of the sequence, compared with those of the reference strain of such species. Strains sharing <98.65 % sequence identity with the reference strain but >98.65 % with other strain(s) within the same ‘Ca. Phytoplasma’ species should be considered related strains to that ‘Ca. Phytoplasma’ species. The guidelines herein, keep the original published reference strains. However, to improve ‘Ca. Phytoplasma’ species assignment, complementary strains are suggested as an alternative to the reference strains. This will be implemented when only a partial 16S rRNA gene and/or a few other genes have been sequenced, or the strain is no longer available for further molecular characterization. Lists of ‘Ca. Phytoplasma’ species and alternative reference strains described are reported. For new ‘Ca. Phytoplasma’ species that will be assigned with identity ≥98.65 % of their 16S rRNA gene sequences, a threshold of 95 % genome-wide average nucleotide identity is suggested. When the whole genome sequences are unavailable, two among conserved housekeeping genes could be used. There are 49 officially published ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’ species, including ‘Ca. P. cocostanzaniae’ and ‘Ca. P. palmae’ described in this manuscript.

Taxonomic note on the family Pseudonocardiaceae based on phylogenomic analysis and descriptions of Allosaccharopolyspora gen. nov. and Halosaccharopolyspora gen. nov

Citation
Teo et al. (2021). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 71 (10)
Names
Actinoalloteichus caeruleus Actinoalloteichus Actinoalloteichus cyanogriseus T Amycolatopsis Pseudonocardiaceae
Subjects
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics General Medicine Microbiology
Abstract
The taxonomic positions of members within the family Pseudonocardiaceae were assessed based on phylogenomic trees reconstructed using core-proteome and genome blast distance phylogeny approaches. The closely clustered genome sequences from the type strains of validly published names within the family Pseudonocardiaceae were analysed using overall genome-related indices based on average nucleotide identity, average amino acid identity and digital DNA–DNA hybridization values. The family Pseudonocardiaceae consists of the type genus Pseudonocardia , as well as the genera Actinoalloteichus , Actinocrispum , Actinokineospora , Actinomycetospora , Actinophytocola , Actinopolyspora , Actinorectispora , Actinosynnema , Allokutzneria , Allosaccharopolyspora gen. nov., Amycolatopsis , Bounagaea , Crossiella , Gandjariella , Goodfellowiella , Haloactinomyces , Haloechinothrix , Halopolyspora , Halosaccharopolyspora gen. nov., Herbihabitans , Kibdelosporangium , Kutzneria , Labedaea , Lentzea , Longimycelium , Prauserella , Saccharomonospora , Saccharopolyspora , Saccharothrix , Salinifilum , Sciscionella , Streptoalloteichus , Tamaricihabitans , Thermocrispum , Thermotunica and Umezawaea . The G+C contents of the Pseudonocardiaceae genomes ranged from 66.2 to 74.6 mol% and genome sizes ranged from 3.69 to 12.28 Mbp. Based on the results of phylogenomic analysis, the names Allosaccharopolyspora coralli comb. nov., Halosaccharopolyspora lacisalsi comb. nov. and Actinoalloteichus caeruleus comb. nov. are proposed. This study revealed that Actinokineospora mzabensis is a heterotypic synonym of Actinokineospora spheciospongiae , Lentzea deserti is a heterotypic synonym of Lentzea atacamensis , Prauserella endophytica is a heterotypic synonym of Prauserella coralliicola , and Prauserella flava and Prauserella sediminis are heterotypic synonyms of Prauserella salsuginis . This study addresses the nomenclature conundrums of Actinoalloteichus cyanogriseus and Streptomyces caeruleus as well as Micropolyspora internatus and Saccharomonospora viridis .

Valid publication of the names of forty-two phyla of prokaryotes

Citation
Oren, Garrity (2021). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 71 (10)
Names
Chloroflexota “Actinobacteria (phylum)” Bacillus “Firmicutes (phylum)” Atribacter Atribacterota Armatimonas Aquifex “Acidobacteria (phylum)” Actinomyces Acidobacterium Myxococcota
Subjects
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics General Medicine Microbiology
Abstract
After the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (ICSP) had voted to include the rank of phylum in the rules of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP), and following publication of the decision in the IJSEM, we here present names and formal descriptions of 42 phyla to effect valid publication of their names, based on genera as the nomenclatural types.

The status Candidatus for uncultured taxa of Bacteria and Archaea: SWOT analysis

Citation
Pallen (2021). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 71 (9)
Subjects
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics General Medicine Microbiology
Abstract
The status Candidatus was introduced to bacterial taxonomy in the 1990s to accommodate uncultured taxa defined by analyses of DNA sequences. Here I review the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) associated with the status Candidatus in the light of a quarter century of use, twinned with recent developments in bacterial taxonomy and sequence-based taxonomic discovery. Despite ambiguities as to its scope, philosophical objections to its use and practical problems in implementation, the status Candidatus has now been applied to over 1000 taxa and has been widely adopted by journals and databases. Although lacking priority under the International Code for Nomenclature of Prokaryotes, many Candidatus names have already achieved de facto standing in the academic literature and in databases via description of a taxon in a peer-reviewed publication, alongside deposition of a genome sequence and there is a clear path to valid publication of such names on culture. Continued and increased use of Candidatus names provides an alternative to the potential upheaval that might accompany creation of a new additional code of nomenclature and provides a ready solution to the urgent challenge of naming many thousands of newly discovered but uncultured species.

‘Candidatus Xiphinematincola pachtaicus' gen. nov., sp. nov., an endosymbiotic bacterium associated with nematode species of the genus Xiphinema (Nematoda, Longidoridae)

Citation
Palomares-Rius et al. (2021). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 71 (7)
Names
Ca. Xiphinematincola Ca. Xiphinematincola pachtaicus Ca. Glomeribacter gigasporarum
Subjects
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics General Medicine Microbiology
Abstract
An intracellular bacterium, strain IAST, was observed to infect several species of the plant-parasitic nematode genus Xiphinema (Xiphinema astaregiense, Xiphinema incertum, Xiphinema madeirense, Xiphinema pachtaicum, Xiphinema parapachydermum and Xiphinema vallense). The bacterium could not be recovered on axenic medium. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of IAST was found to be new, being related to the family Burkholderiaceae, class Betaproteobacteria. Fungal endosymbionts Mycoavidus cysteinexigens B1-EBT (92.9 % sequence identity) and ‘Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum’ BEG34 (89.8 % identity) are the closest taxa and form a separate phylogenetic clade inside Burkholderiaceae. Other genes (atpD, lepA and recA) also separated this species from its closest relatives using a multilocus sequence analysis approach. These genes were obtained using a partial genome of this bacterium. The localization of the bacterium (via light and fluorescence in situ hybridization microscopy) is in the X. pachtaicum females clustered around the developing oocytes, primarily found embedded inside the epithelial wall cells of the ovaries, from where they are dispersed in the intestine. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations supported the presence of bacteria inside the nematode body, where they occupy ovaries and occur inside the intestinal epithelium. Ultrastructural analysis of the bacterium showed cells that appear as mostly irregular, slightly curved rods with rounded ends, 0.8–1.2 µm wide and 2.5–6.0 µm long, possessing a typical Gram-negative cell wall. The peptidoglycan layer is, however, evident only occasionally and not detectable by TEM in most cells. Another irregularly occurring shell surrounding the endosymbiont cells or the cell clusters was also revealed, probably originating from the host cell membrane. Flagella or spore-like cells do not occur and the nucleoid is diffusely distributed throughout the cell. This endosymbiont is transmitted vertically through nematode generations. These results support the proposal of IAST as a new species, although its obligate intracellular and obligate endosymbiont nature prevented isolation of a definitive type strain. Strain IAST is therefore proposed as representing ‘Candidatus Xiphinematincola pachtaicus’ gen. nov., sp. nov.

'Candidatus Phytoplasma dypsidis', a novel taxon associated with a lethal wilt disease of palms in Australia

Citation
Jones et al. (2021). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 71 (5)
Names
Ca. Phytoplasma noviguineense Ca. Phytoplasma dypsidis Ca. Phytoplasma
Subjects
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics General Medicine Microbiology
Abstract
A phytoplasma was initially detected in Dypsis poivriana by nested and real-time PCR from the botanical gardens in Cairns, Queensland, Australia in 2017. Further surveys in the Cairns region identified phytoplasma infections in eight additional dying ornamental palm species (Euterpe precatoria, Cocos nucifera, Verschaffeltia splendida, Brassiophoenix drymophloeodes, Burretiokentia hapala, Cyrtostachys renda, Reinhardtia gracilis, Carpoxylon macrospermum), a Phoenix species, a Euterpe species and two native palms (Archontophoenix alexandrae). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that this phytoplasma is distinct as it shared less than 97.5 % similarity with all other ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’ species. At 96.3 % similarity, the most closely related formally described member of the provisional 'Ca. Phytoplasma' genus was 'Ca. Phytoplasma noviguineense', a novel taxon from the island of New Guinea found in monocotyledonous plants. It was slightly more closely related (96.6–96.8 %) to four palm-infecting strains from the Americas, which belong to strain group 16SrIV and which have not been assigned to a formal 'Candidatus Phytoplasma’ species taxon. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and ribosomal protein genes of the phytoplasma isolate from a dying coconut palm revealed that the phytoplasma represented a distinct lineage within the phytoplasma clade. As the nucleotide identity with other phytoplasmas is less than 97.5 % and the phylogenetic analyses show that it is distinct, a novel taxon 'Candidatus Phytoplasma dypsidis' is proposed for the phytoplasma found in Australia. Strain RID7692 (GenBank accession no. MT536195) is the reference strain. The impact and preliminary aspects of the epidemiology of the disease outbreak associated with this novel taxon are described.