CVPD disease (Huanglongbing) is the most severe citrus disease caused by the bacterium Cand. Liberibacter asiaticus. This pathogen lives in the phloem tissue of citrus plants and is transmitted through the vector Diaphorina citri and by grafting. The study aimed to know the presence of CVPD disease in Orange cv Selayar nurseries and mother tree gardens in the Selayar Islands Regency. The PCR test was carried out in the research using the Laboratory of Agricultural Biotechnology, Hasanuddin University. The DNA of the citrus leaves was extracted using the Genomic DNA Kit method and the DNA CLas was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the primer pairs OI1-O12c. The results showed that the percentage of mother plants of orange cv. Selayar infected with CVPD-like symptoms were 10-21 %. The percentage of citrus seedlings with CVPD-like symptoms in 2 nurseries were 0.27% and 0.09%. The symptoms of CVPD disease have been confirmed using a PCR technique, which was successful in amplifying the DNA fragment of CLa measuring 1160 bp, although not all symptoms suspected of CVPD are confirmed positive.
Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process is a type of biological nitrogen removal technology which is known to directly convert ammonium and nitrite to nitrogen gas. The freshwater ‘Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis’ anammox under the phylum of Planctomycetes is used to study the parameters that affect the anammox development and the metabolic pathways alongside the associated enzymes. These observations were made using state-of-the art techniques for detecting anammox bacteria based on their small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes, functional genes and unique reaction pathways. This review systematically summarizes up-to-date studies on the parameters affecting the growth of the anammox bacteria and metabolic networks driving anammox bacterial anabolism and mixotrophy beyond genome-based predictions. The K. stuttgartiensis survives in summer and winter conditions besides in the aerobic zones (dissolved oxygen >2 mg/L), which consequently contribute to better nitrogen removal in the wastewater treatment. Furthermore, the K. stuttgartiensis utilizes the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway to directly assimilate extracellular formation instead of oxidising it completely to CO2 prior reassimilation.