Search results (15)


The molecular interplay of the establishment of an infection – gene expression of Diaphorina citri gut and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

Citation
Bento et al. (2021). BMC Genomics 22 (1)
Names
Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus
Subjects
Biotechnology Genetics
Abstract
Abstract Background Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is one the causative agents of greening disease in citrus, an unccurable, devastating disease of citrus worldwide. CLas is vectored by Diaphorina citri, and the understanding of the molecular interplay between vector and pathogen will provide additional basis for the development and implementation of successful management strategies. We focused in the molecular interplay occurring in the gut of the vector, a major barrier for CLas invasion and colonization. Results We investigated the differential expression of vector and CLas genes by analyzing a de novo reference metatranscriptome of the gut of adult psyllids fed of CLas-infected and healthy citrus plants for 1-2, 3-4 and 5-6 days. CLas regulates the immune response of the vector affecting the production of reactive species of oxygen and nitrogen, and the production of antimicrobial peptides. Moreover, CLas overexpressed peroxiredoxin, probably in a protective manner. The major transcript involved in immune expression was related to melanization, a CLIP-domain serine protease we believe participates in the wounding of epithelial cells damaged during infection, which is supported by the down-regulation of pangolin. We also detected that CLas modulates the gut peristalsis of psyllids through the down-regulation of titin, reducing the elimination of CLas with faeces. The up-regulation of the neuromodulator arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase implies CLas also interferes with the double brain-gut communication circuitry of the vector. CLas colonizes the gut by expressing two Type IVb pilin flp genes and several chaperones that can also function as adhesins. We hypothesized biofilm formation occurs by the expression of the cold shock protein of CLas. Conclusions The thorough detailed analysis of the transcritome of Ca. L. asiaticus and of D. citri at different time points of their interaction in the gut tissues of the host led to the identification of several host genes targeted for regulation by L. asiaticus, but also bacterial genes coding for potential effector proteins. The identified targets and effector proteins are potential targets for the development of new management strategies directed to interfere with the successful utilization of the psyllid vector by this pathogen.

Comparative genomics in “Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis” reveal high genomic plasticity in the overall genome structure, CRISPR loci and surface proteins

Citation
Ding, Adrian (2020). BMC Genomics 21 (1)
Names
Ca. Kuenenia stuttgartiensis Ca. Kuenenia
Subjects
Biotechnology Genetics
Abstract
Abstract Background Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (anammox bacteria) are contributing significantly to the nitrogen cycle and are successfully used in wastewater treatment. Due to the lack of complete genomes in the databases, little is known about the stability and variability of their genomes and how the genomes evolve in response to changing environments. Results Here we report the complete genome of the anammox bacterium “Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis” strain CSTR1 which was enriched planktonically in a semi-continuous stirred-tank reactor. A comparison of the genome of strain CSTR1 with the genome of “Ca. Kuenenia stuttgartiensis” MBR1 and the draft genome of KUST showed > 99% average nucleotide identity among all. Rearrangements of large genomic regions were observed, most of which were associated with transposase genes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that strain MBR1 is more distantly related to the other two strains. Proteomic analysis of actively growing cells of strain CSTR1 (growth rate ~ 0.33 d− 1) failed to detect the annotated cytochrome cd1-type nitrite reductase (NirS) although in total 1189 proteins were found in the proteome. Yet, this NirS was expressed when strain CSTR1 was under stress or starvation (growth rate < 0.06 d− 1). We also observed large sequence shifts in the strongly expressed S-layer protein compared to other “Ca. Kuenenia” strains, indicating the formation of hybrids of genes encoding the surface proteins. Conclusions “Ca. Kuenenia” strains appear to be relatively stable in their basic physiological traits, but show high variability in overall genome structure and surface proteins.

Comparative genomics reveals a novel genetic organization of the sad cluster in the sulfonamide-degrader ‘Candidatus Leucobacter sulfamidivorax’ strain GP

Citation
Reis et al. (2019). BMC Genomics 20 (1)
Names
Ca. Leucobacter sulfamidivorax
Subjects
Biotechnology Genetics
Abstract
Abstract Background Microbial communities recurrently establish metabolic associations resulting in increased fitness and ability to perform complex tasks, such as xenobiotic degradation. In a previous study, we have described a sulfonamide-degrading consortium consisting of a novel low-abundant actinobacterium, named strain GP, and Achromobacter denitrificans PR1. However, we found that strain GP was unable to grow independently and could not be further purified. Results Previous studies suggested that strain GP might represent a new putative species within the Leucobacter genus (16S rRNA gene similarity < 97%). In this study, we found that average nucleotide identity (ANI) with other Leucobacter spp. ranged between 76.8 and 82.1%, further corroborating the affiliation of strain GP to a new provisional species. The average amino acid identity (AAI) and percentage of conserved genes (POCP) values were near the lower edge of the genus delimitation thresholds (65 and 55%, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis of core genes between strain GP and Leucobacter spp. corroborated these findings. Comparative genomic analysis indicates that strain GP may have lost genes related to tetrapyrrole biosynthesis and thiol transporters, both crucial for the correct assembly of cytochromes and aerobic growth. However, supplying exogenous heme and catalase was insufficient to abolish the dependent phenotype. The actinobacterium harbors at least two copies of a novel genetic element containing a sulfonamide monooxygenase (sadA) flanked by a single IS1380 family transposase. Additionally, two homologs of sadB (4-aminophenol monooxygenase) were identified in the metagenome-assembled draft genome of strain GP, but these were not located in the vicinity of sadA nor of mobile or integrative elements. Conclusions Comparative genomics of the genus Leucobacter suggested the absence of some genes encoding for important metabolic traits in strain GP. Nevertheless, although media and culture conditions were tailored to supply its potential metabolic needs, these conditions were insufficient to isolate the PR1-dependent actinobacterium further. This study gives important insights regarding strain GP metabolism; however, gene expression and functional studies are necessary to characterize and further isolate strain GP. Based on our data, we propose to classify strain GP in a provisional new species within the genus Leucobacter, ‘Candidatus Leucobacter sulfamidivorax‘.

‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ interferes with the distribution and uptake of iron in tomato

Citation
Buoso et al. (2019). BMC Genomics 20 (1)
Names
Ca. Phytoplasma solani
Subjects
Biotechnology Genetics
Abstract
Abstract Background ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ is endemic in Europe and infects a wide range of weeds and cultivated plants. Phytoplasmas are prokaryotic plant pathogens that colonize the sieve elements of their host plant, causing severe alterations in phloem function and impairment of assimilate translocation. Typical symptoms of infected plants include yellowing of leaves or shoots, leaf curling, and general stunting, but the molecular mechanisms underlying most of the reported changes remain largely enigmatic. To infer a possible involvement of Fe in the host-phytoplasma interaction, we investigated the effects of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ infection on tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom) grown under different Fe regimes. Results Both phytoplasma infection and Fe starvation led to the development of chlorotic leaves and altered thylakoid organization. In infected plants, Fe accumulated in phloem tissue, altering the local distribution of Fe. In infected plants, Fe starvation had additive effects on chlorophyll content and leaf chlorosis, suggesting that the two conditions affected the phenotypic readout via separate routes. To gain insights into the transcriptional response to phytoplasma infection, or Fe deficiency, transcriptome profiling was performed on midrib-enriched leaves. RNA-seq analysis revealed that both stress conditions altered the expression of a large (> 800) subset of common genes involved in photosynthetic light reactions, porphyrin / chlorophyll metabolism, and in flowering control. In Fe-deficient plants, phytoplasma infection perturbed the Fe deficiency response in roots, possibly by interference with the synthesis or transport of a promotive signal transmitted from the leaves to the roots. Conclusions ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ infection changes the Fe distribution in tomato leaves, affects the photosynthetic machinery and perturbs the orchestration of root-mediated transport processes by compromising shoot-to-root communication.