This report describes a case of canine hemotropic mycoplasmasosis by Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum in a dog. A five-year-old splenectomized dog was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Sassari with clinical symptoms and laboratory findings compatible with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. Epicellular bacteria were detected in the erythrocytes by microscopic examination of blood smears. PCR and sequencing were positive for Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum. Treatment with doxycycline, prednisolone and blood transfusion was administered. Several studies have described the molecular prevalence of M. hemocanis and Candidatus M. haematoparvum, however there are few clinical reports, especially those describing Candidatus M. haematoparvum infection in dogs, for which only two cases have been reported. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case report of a symptomatic infection caused by Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum in Italy. Hemoplasmosis should be considered as a potential cause of hemolytic anemia in dogs. Following treatment with doxycycline and prednisolone, the clinical signs improved without resolution of infection. This condition was the same at the three-year follow-up.
Human activities such as deforestation, urbanization, and environmental pollution lead to a reduction in the spatial boundary between wild animals, domestic animals and humans. These activities increase the risk for the emergence of pathogens from the sylvatic cycle in the population of domestic animals and humans. Foxes are recognized as potential reservoirs for a number of bacterial pathogens of medical and public health concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and spatial distribution of bacterial tick-borne pathogens from the Anaplasmataceae family, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, Bartonella spp., in the red fox population from Serbia and to discuss the obtained results from the epidemiological point of view. Legally hunted red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from 14 localities in Serbia were included in the study and spleen samples from 129 animals were tested with conventional PCR assays for the presence of bacterial tick-borne pathogens. DNA of Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. (FU98), Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia lusitaniae, and Borrelia garinii was detected in 6 (4.7%), 1 (0.8%), 2 (1.6%) and 1 (0.8%) animals, respectively. Co-infection by Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. (FU98) and B. garinii was detected in one animal. All samples were negative for other tested bacterial tick-borne pathogens. The results of the present study indicate the potential role of foxes in natural cycles of Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. (FU98) and causative agents of Lyme borreliosis in the investigated areas. Further research is required to elucidate the role of foxes in the epidemiology of these and other tick-borne zoonotic pathogens in the Republic of Serbia.