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Identification of housekeeping genes of Candidatus Branchiomonas cysticola associated with epitheliocystis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

Citation
Mjølnerød et al. (2022). Archives of Microbiology 204 (7)
Names
Ca. Branchiomonas cysticola
Subjects
Biochemistry General Medicine Genetics Microbiology Molecular Biology
Abstract
AbstractCandidatus Branchiomonas cysticola is an intracellular, gram-negative Betaproteobacteria causing epitheliocystis in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.). The bacterium has not been genetically characterized at the intraspecific level despite its high prevalence among salmon suffering from gill disease in Norwegian aquaculture. DNA from gill samples of Atlantic salmon PCR positive for Cand. B. cysticola and displaying pathological signs of gill disease, was, therefore, extracted and subject to next-generation sequencing (mNGS). Partial sequences of four housekeeping (HK) genes (aceE, lepA, rplB, rpoC) were ultimately identified from the sequenced material. Assays for real-time RT-PCR and fluorescence in-situ hybridization, targeting the newly acquired genes, were simultaneously applied with existing assays targeting the previously characterized 16S rRNA gene. Agreement in both expression and specificity between these putative HK genes and the 16S gene was observed in all instances, indicating that the partial sequences of these HK genes originate from Cand. B. cysticola. The knowledge generated from the present study constitutes a major prerequisite for the future design of novel genotyping schemes for this bacterium.

Dehalogenation of Chlorinated Ethenes to Ethene by a Novel Isolate, “ <i>Candidatus</i> Dehalogenimonas etheniformans”

Citation
Chen et al. (2022). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 88 (12)
Names
Ca. Dehalogenimonas etheniformans
Subjects
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Biotechnology Ecology Food Science
Abstract
Chlorinated ethenes are risk drivers at many contaminated sites, and current bioremediation efforts focus on organohalide-respiring Dehalococcoides mccartyi strains to achieve detoxification. We isolated and characterized the first non- Dehalococcoides bacterium, “ Candidatus Dehalogenimonas etheniformans” strain GP, capable of metabolic reductive dechlorination of TCE, all DCE isomers, and VC to environmentally benign ethene.

Reevaluation of the Phylogenetic Diversity and Global Distribution of the Genus “ <i>Candidatus</i> Accumulibacter”

Citation
Petriglieri et al. (2022). mSystems 7 (3)
Names
Ca. Accumulibacter
Subjects
Biochemistry Computer Science Applications Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics Genetics Microbiology Modeling and Simulation Molecular Biology Physiology
Abstract
“ Candidatus Accumulibacter” is the most studied PAO, with a primary role in biological nutrient removal. However, the species-level taxonomy of this lineage is convoluted due to the use of different phylogenetic markers or genome sequencing approaches. Here, we redefined the phylogeny of these organisms, proposing a comprehensive approach which could be used to address the classification of other diverse and uncultivated lineages.

Two New Species of Filamentous Sulfur Bacteria of the Genus Thiothrix, Thiothrix winogradskyi sp. nov. and ‘Candidatus Thiothrix sulfatifontis’ sp. nov.

Citation
Ravin et al. (2022). Microorganisms 10 (7)
Names
Ca. Thiothrix sulfatifontis
Subjects
Microbiology Microbiology (medical) Virology
Abstract
The metagenome of foulings from sulfidic spring “Serovodorodny” (Tatarstan, Russia), where members of the genus Thiothrix was observed, was sequenced. Representatives of the phyla Gammaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Campilobacteriota dominated in the microbial community. The complete genome of Thiothrix sp. KT was assembled from the metagenome. It displayed 93.93–99.72% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity to other Thiothrix species. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) и digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) showed that the genome designated KT represents a new species within the genus Thiothrix, ‘Candidatus Thiothrix sulfatifontis’ sp. nov. KT. The taxonomic status has been determined of the strain Thiothrix sp. CT3, isolated about 30 years ago and not assigned to any of Thiothrix species due to high 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with related species (i.e., 98.8–99.4%). The complete genome sequence of strain CT3 was determined. The ANI between CT3 and other Thiothrix species was below 82%, and the dDDH values were less than 40%, indicating that strain CT3 belongs to a novel species, Thiothrix winogradskyi sp. nov. A genome analysis showed that both strains are chemo-organoheterotrophs, chemolithotrophs (in the presence of hydrogen sulfide and thiosulfate) and chemoautotrophs. For the first time, representatives of Thiothrix showed anaerobic growth in the presence of thiosulfate.

<i>Candidatus</i> Nitrosopolaris, a genus of putative ammonia-oxidizing archaea with a polar/alpine distribution

Citation
Pessi et al. (2022). FEMS Microbes
Names
Ca. Nitrosopolaris
Subjects
General Medicine
Abstract
Abstract Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are key players in the nitrogen cycle of polar soils. Here, we analysed metagenomic data from tundra soils in Rásttigáisá, Norway, and recovered four metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) assigned to the genus “UBA10452”, an uncultured lineage of putative AOA in the order Nitrososphaerales (“terrestrial group I.1b”), phylum Thaumarchaeota. Analysis of other eight previously reported MAGs and publicly available amplicon sequencing data revealed that the UBA10452 lineage is predominantly found in acidic polar and alpine soils. In particular, UBA10452 MAGs were more abundant in highly oligotrophic environments such as mineral permafrost than in more nutrient-rich, vegetated tundra soils. UBA10452 MAGs harbour multiple copies of genes related to cold tolerance, particularly genes involved in DNA replication and repair. Based on the phylogenetic, biogeographical, and ecological characteristics of 12 UBA10452 MAGs, which include a high-quality MAG (90.8% complete, 3.9% redundant) with a nearly complete 16S rRNA gene, we propose a novel Candidatus genus, Ca. Nitrosopolaris, with four species representing clear biogeographical/habitat clusters.

The Upregulated Expression of the Citrus RIN4 Gene in HLB Diseased Citrus Aids Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus Infection

Citation
Cheng et al. (2022). International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23 (13)
Names
Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus Liberibacter
Subjects
Catalysis Computer Science Applications General Medicine Inorganic Chemistry Molecular Biology Organic Chemistry Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Spectroscopy
Abstract
The citrus industry has been threatened by Huanglongbing (HLB) for over a century. Here, an HLB-induced Arabidopsis RPM1-interacting protein 4 (RIN4) homologous gene was cloned from Citrus clementina, and its characteristics and function were analyzed to determine its role during citrus–Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) interactions. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that RIN4 was expressed in roots, stems, leaves and flowers, with the greatest expression level in leaves. Its expression was suppressed by gibberellic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid treatments, but was induced by abscisic acid and salt treatments, as well as wounding. The transient expression of a RIN4-GFP showed that RIN4 was localized in the cell membrane. RIN4-overexpressing transgenic C. maxima cv. ‘Shatianyou’ plants were obtained, and some transgenic plants showed greater sensitivity to CLas infection and earlier HLB symptoms appearance than non-transgenic controls. Results obtained in this study indicated that the upregulated expression of RIN4 in HLB diseased citrus may aid CLas infection.