Anaerobic ammon ium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria oxidize ammonium and reduce nitrite, producing N2, and could play a major role in energy-optimized wastewater treatment. However, sensitivity to various environmental conditions and slow growth currently hinder their wide application. Here, we attempted to determine online the effect of environmental stresses on anammox bacteria by using an overnight batch activity test with whole cells, in which anammox activity was calculated by quantifying N2 production via headspace-pressure monitoring. A planktonic mixed culture dominated by “Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis” strain CSTR1 was cultivated in a 30-L semi-continuous stirring tank reactor. In overnight resting-cell anammox activity tests, oxygen caused strong inhibition of anammox activity, which was reversed by sodium sulfite (30 µM). The tested antibiotics sulfamethoxazole, kanamycin, and ciprofloxacin elicited their effect on a dose-dependent manner; however, strain CSTR1 was highly resistant to sulfamethoxazole. Anammox activity was improved by activated carbon and Fe2O3. Protein expression analysis from resting cells after anammox activity stimulation revealed that NapC/NirT family cytochrome c (KsCSTR_12840), hydrazine synthase, hydrazine dehydrogenase, hydroxylamine oxidase, and nitrate:nitrite oxidoreductase were upregulated, while a putative hydroxylamine oxidoreductase HAO (KsCSTR_49490) was downregulated. These findings contribute to the growing knowledge on anammox bacteria physiology, eventually leading to the control of anammox bacteria growth and activity in real-world application.
• Sulfite additions can reverse oxygen inhibition of the anammox process
• Anammox activity was improved by activated carbon and ferric oxide
• Sulfamethoxazole marginally affected anammox activity
The article demonstrates the results of the molecular analysis of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' presence in some weed species, possible reservoirs of infection. During the study, the optimal conditions for the determination of phytoplasma in weeds were selected. The research was carried out over three years. The presence of the pathogen 'Ca. P. solani' was found in the plants of Solanum nigrum and Convolvulus arvense. Also, as a result of the study, it was established that the method of isolation by boiling in alkaline solution is the most efficient and allows to obtain truthful results compared to other methods used.
AbstractThiovulum spp. (Campylobacterota) are large sulfur bacteria that form veil-like structures in aquatic environments. The sulfidic Movile Cave (Romania), sealed from the atmosphere for ~5 million years, has several aqueous chambers, some with low atmospheric O2 (~7%). The cave’s surface-water microbial community is dominated by bacteria we identified as Thiovulum. We show that this strain, and others from subsurface environments, are phylogenetically distinct from marine Thiovulum. We assembled a closed genome of the Movile strain and confirmed its metabolism using RNAseq. We compared the genome of this strain and one we assembled from public data from the sulfidic Frasassi caves to four marine genomes, including Candidatus Thiovulum karukerense and Ca. T. imperiosus, whose genomes we sequenced. Despite great spatial and temporal separation, the genomes of the Movile and Frasassi Thiovulum were highly similar, differing greatly from the very diverse marine strains. We concluded that cave Thiovulum represent a new species, named here Candidatus Thiovulum stygium. Based on their genomes, cave Thiovulum can switch between aerobic and anaerobic sulfide oxidation using O2 and NO3- as electron acceptors, the latter likely via dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia. Thus, Thiovulum is likely important to both S and N cycles in sulfidic caves. Electron microscopy analysis suggests that at least some of the short peritrichous structures typical of Thiovulum are type IV pili, for which genes were found in all strains. These pili may play a role in veil formation, by connecting adjacent cells, and in the motility of these exceptionally fast swimmers.