AbstractEleven haplotypes of the bacterium, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’, have been identified worldwide, several of which infect important agricultural crops. In the United States, haplotypes A and B are associated with yield and quality losses in potato, tomato, and other crops of the Solanaceae. Both haplotypes are vectored by potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli. Recently, a third haplotype, designated F, was identified in southern Oregon potato fields. To identify the vector of this haplotype, psyllids of multiple species were collected from yellow sticky cards placed near potato fields during two growing seasons. Over 2700 specimens were tested for ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ by polymerase chain reaction. Forty-seven psyllids harbored the bacterium. The infected specimens comprised four psyllid species in two families, Aphalaridae and Triozidae (Hemiptera: Psylloidea). Nucleic acid and/or amino acid sequence analysis of the ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ 16S ribosomal RNA, 50S ribosomal proteins L10/L12, and outer membrane protein identified three new haplotypes of the bacterium, designated as Aph1, Aph2 and Aph3, including two variants of Aph2 (Aph2a and Aph2b). The impact of these new haplotypes on solanaceous or other crops is not known. The vector of ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ haplotype F was not detected in this study.
Dichloromethane (DCM; CH2Cl2) is a widespread pollutant with anthropogenic and natural sources. Anaerobic DCM-dechlorinating bacteria use the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway, yet dechlorination reaction mechanisms remain unclear and the enzyme(s) responsible for carbon-chlorine bond cleavage have not been definitively identified. Of the three bacterial taxa known to carry out anaerobic dechlorination of DCM, ‘Candidatus Formimonas warabiya’ strain DCMF is the only organism that can also ferment non-chlorinated substrates, including quaternary amines (i.e., choline and glycine betaine) and methanol. Strain DCMF is present within enrichment culture DFE, which was derived from an organochlorine-contaminated aquifer. We utilized the metabolic versatility of strain DCMF to carry out comparative metaproteomics of cultures grown with DCM or glycine betaine. This revealed differential abundance of numerous proteins, including a methyltransferase gene cluster (the mec cassette) that was significantly more abundant during DCM degradation, as well as highly conserved amongst anaerobic DCM-degrading bacteria. This lends strong support to its involvement in DCM dechlorination. A putative glycine betaine methyltransferase was also discovered, adding to the limited knowledge about the fate of this widespread osmolyte in anoxic subsurface environments. Furthermore, the metagenome of enrichment culture DFE was assembled, resulting in five high quality and two low quality draft metagenome-assembled genomes. Metaproteogenomic analysis did not reveal any genes or proteins for utilization of DCM or glycine betaine in the cohabiting bacteria, supporting the previously held idea that they persist via necromass utilization.
Coxiella burnetii and Coxiella-like endosymbionts (CLEs) have been widely discovered in various ticks, animals, and even human beings. To estimate the possible origin of C. burnetii and its relatives CLEs, the prevalence of C. burnetii and CLEs has been intensively surveyed all over the world.
In the present study, the possible infection of C. burnetii and CLEs in host-seeking Haemaphysalis concinna was performed with meta-transcript analysis with tick specimens harvested from Mudanjiang City, Heilongjiang province, China. The meta-transcript results were subsequently confirmed by the specific sequence of partial 16S rRNA.
A total of three arrays of gene transcripts were harvested, including pyrophosphate-fructose 6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase-eda-thiol-disulfide isomerase and thioredoxin-greA, carB-carA-DnaJ-DnaK-grpE-ppnk, ropC-ropB, and ubiA-non-canonical purine NTP pyrophosphatase-hemK-prfA, which suggest the infection of Candidatus Coxiella mudorwiae in H. concinna. The high identity of the 16S rRNA gene of Candidatus C. mudorwiae achieved in our study strongly supports our meta-transcripts analysis.
The prevalence of Candidatus C. mudorwiae in hard ticks has been discovered in China. More detailed surveys are imperative to clarify the emergence of CLEs and their implication in the epidemiologic characteristics of Q fever.
‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) is the causal agent of zebra chip of potato (Solanum tuberosum), which can significantly reduce potato yield. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the detection of Lso haplotypes A and B was developed and evaluated. Two sets of LAMP primers named LAMP-A and LAMP-B were designed and tested for specificity and sensitivity. Both LAMP-A and LAMP-B were specific to Lso in in silico analysis using the Primer-Blast tool. The LAMP-A and LAMP-B could only produce positive signals from DNA mixtures of Lso-infected tomato but not from the genomic DNA of 37 nontarget plant pathogens. The sensitivity of LAMP-A and LAMP-B on Lso haplotypes A and B were tested on gBlocks and genomic DNA from Lso-infected tomato. On the genomic DNA for LAMP-A, the lowest amount of template DNA for a positive LAMP reaction was 2 to 20 ng on four haplotype A strains and 20 to 80 ng on four haplotype B strains; for LAMP-B, the lowest amount of template DNA for a positive LAMP reaction was 0.02 to 2 ng on four haplotype B strains and 20 ng to no amplification on four haplotype A strains. On gBlocks for LAMP-A, the lowest number of copies for a positive LAMP reaction was 60 on haplotype A and 600 on haplotype B; for LAMP-B, the lowest number of copies for a positive LAMP reaction was 60 on haplotype B and 600 on haplotype A. Therefore, considering the convenience of the LAMP technique, as well as the high specificity and sensitivity, the LAMP-A and LAMP-B primers can be used together to test the probable Lso-infected plant or psyllid samples to rapidly, accurately, and directly differentiate haplotypes A and B. We highly recommend this LAMP system to plant pathology practitioners and diagnostic labs for routine detection of Lso and confirmation of zebra chip disease on potato or tomato.
Citrus greening, also known as Huanglongbing (HLB), is caused by the unculturable bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter spp. (e.g., CLas), and has caused a devastating decline in citrus production in many areas of the world. As of yet, there are no definitive treatments for controlling the disease. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that have the potential to block secretion-dependent effector proteins at the outer-membrane domains were screened in silico. Predictions of drug-receptor interactions were built using multiple in silico techniques, including molecular docking analysis, molecular dynamics, molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area analysis, and principal component analysis. The efflux pump TolC of the Type 1 secretion system interacted with natural bacteriocin plantaricin JLA-9, blocking the β barrel. The trajectory-based principal component analysis revealed the possible binding mechanism of the peptides. Furthermore, in vitro assays using two closely related culturable surrogates of CLas (Liberibacter crescens and Rhizobium spp.) showed that Plantaricin JLA-9 and two other screened AMPs inhibited bacterial growth and caused mortality. The findings contribute to designing effective therapies to manage plant diseases associated with Candidatus Liberibacter spp.
“Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” (CLas) is a phloem-restricted α-proteobacterium that is associated with citrus huanglongbing (HLB), which is the most destructive disease that affects all varieties of citrus. Although midrib is usually used as a material for CLas detection, we recently found that the bacterium was enriched in fruits, especially in the fruit pith. However, no study has revealed the molecular basis of these two parts in responding to CLas infection. Therefore, we performed transcriptome and UHPLC–MS-based targeted and untargeted metabolomics analyses in order to organize the essential genes and metabolites that are involved. Transcriptome and metabolome characterized 4834 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 383 differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) between the two materials, wherein 179 DEGs and 44 DAMs were affected by HLB in both of the tissues, involving the pathways of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, phytohormone signaling transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, and photosynthesis. Notably, we discovered that the gene expression that is related to beta-glucosidase and endoglucanase was up-regulated in fruits. In addition, defense-related gene expression and metabolite accumulation were significantly down-regulated in infected fruits. Taken together, the decreased amount of jasmonic acid, coupled with the reduced accumulation of phenylpropanoid and the increased proliferation of indole-3-acetic acid, salicylic acid, and abscisic acid, compared to leaf midribs, may contribute largely to the enrichment of CLas in fruit piths, resulting in disorders of photosynthesis and starch and sucrose metabolism.
El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar en el genoma de Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), proteínas de membrana externa con potencial para el desarrollo y optimización de un método de detección inmunoenzimático. El estudio se realizó durante 2019 y se utilizó el servidor web Predict Protein, así como las bases de datos HhPred/HhSearch y Pfam. Se detectaron 52 proteínas de membrana externa en el genoma completo de CLas, de las cuales, 11 no habían sido caracterizadas previamente. Los análisis predictivos realizados en la proteína B8Y674 generaron ocho posibles epítopos y cuatro de ellos evaluados experimentalmente en células B, mostraron porcentajes de identidad entre 80 a 90%. Se detectó a CLas mediante PCR-punto final a partir del ADN extraído de limón mexicano con síntomas de Huanglongbing utilizando iniciadores diseñados sobre la secuencia del gen Omp que codifica para la proteína B8Y674 y se registró 95% de identidad entre las secuencias generadas y secuencias de CLas previamente reportadas. Los resultados obtenidos nos permiten inferir que la proteína B8Y674 es un candidato potencial para ser utilizada en la detección inmunoenzimática de CLas.
Se identificaron nuevos haplotipos de Diaphorina citri también conocido como el psílido asiático de los cítricos, denominados DcitACC-1, DcitACC-2 y DcitACC-3. Los estudios se basaron en la amplificación de ADN del gen COI mitocondrial y se utilizaron individuos de diferentes zonas citrícolas del país, en algunas zonas productoras del país no se han realizado muestreos con anterioridad, específicamente en los municipios de Acatlán de Pérez, Oaxaca, Misantla y Tantoyuca, Veracruz y Huejutla, Hidalgo, por lo que se procedió a colectar insectos adultos sin distinción de género. El número de individuos de cada sitio colectado dependió de la disponibilidad de insectos en el lugar. Se obtuvieron en total 60 individuos colectados. La amplificación del ADN se realizó con los iniciadores específicos DCITRI COI-L y DCITRI COI-R, el producto de la reacción PCR se secuenció en el Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, AC (IPICYT). Las secuencias obtenidas se compararon con las reportadas en el Genebank y se determinó que existe una línea matriz que corresponde a los haplotipos Dcit-01 y Dcit-04 con número de identificación FJ190300 y FJ190306 (Boykin, 2007). Se obtuvieron 22 secuencias que se analizaron con los programas Oligo analizer y Clustal Omega y se identificaron 11 secuencias iguales a los haplotipos Dcit-01 y Dcit-04. Los resultados mostraron 13 secuencias con diferencias en tres nucleótidos específicos: 61, 253 y 636, mismos que son reportados en este trabajo como nuevos haplotipos.