Ribosomal gene sequences were obtained from bryozoans in the genus
and their bacterial symbionts; analyses of host and symbiont phylogenetic trees did not support a history of strict cospeciation. Symbiont-derived compounds known to defend host larvae from predation were only detected in two out of four symbiotic
To characterize potentially important surface-exposed proteins of the phytoplasma causing chrysanthemum yellows (CY), new primers were designed based on the conserved regions of 3 membrane protein genes of the completely sequenced onion yellows and aster yellows witches’ broom phytoplasmas and were used to amplify CY DNA. The CY genes secY, amp, and artI, encoding the protein translocase subunit SecY, the antigenic membrane protein Amp and the arginine transporter ArtI, respectively, were cloned and completely sequenced. Alignment of CY-specific secY sequences with the corresponding genes of other phytoplasmas confirmed the 16S rDNA-based classification, while amp sequences were highly variable within the ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’. Five CY partial sequences were cloned into the pRSetC expression vector, and 3 of the encoded protein fragments (Amp 64/651, Amp 64/224, ArtI 131/512) were expressed as fusion antigens for the production of CY-specific polyclonal antibodies (A416 against Amp 64/224; A407 against ArtI 131/512). A416 recognized, in Western blots, the full-length Amp from CY-infected plants (periwinkle, daisy) and insect vectors ( Euscelidius variegatus , Macrosteles quadripunctulatus ). A416 also reacted to European aster yellows, to primula yellows phytoplasmas, to northern Italian strains of ‘Ca. Phytoplasma asteris’ from lettuce and gladiolus, but it did not react to American aster yellows phytoplasma.
Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is associated with three different species of fastidious α-proteobacteria, namely ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’, Ca. L. americanus, and Ca. L. africanus (1). ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ was first detected in South Florida in 2005 and has spread throughout the citrus-growing areas of Florida. ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ is transmitted naturally by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, and can also be transmitted by graft propagation and via various species of dodder (Cuscuta). HLB affects most if not all citrus and citrus relatives within the family Rutaceae (2), including the ornamental shrub Murraya paniculata (4). In addition, ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ and ‘Ca. L. americanus’ can infect tobacco (Nicotiana xanthi) and periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) (1,4). Here we report that ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ can infect tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cvs. Manapal and FL47. Manapal and FL 47 plants grown from seed were placed adjacent to ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’-infected sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) plants with dodder (Cuscuta pentagona) already well established on them. Young dodder shoots still connected to the citrus were draped over the tomato plants and subsequently also became attached to the tomato stems. After 1 month, the tomato plants were detached from the citrus and most of the dodder removed. One month later, these tomato plants started to show vein clearing and subsequently the mature leaves became thicker and leathery. Some leaves showed blotchy mottle symptoms and some fruits became lopsided in a manner similar to HLB symptom expression on citrus. PCR amplification of the ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ 16S rDNA with primers OI1/OI2c and the β-operon with primers A2/J5 (1) revealed the presence of ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ DNA. Sequence analysis confirmed that the sequences of the cloned amplicons were identical to those from the HLB-infected citrus source plant. Both conventional and quantitative real-time PCR (3) revealed a much lower abundance of ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ DNA in tomato as compared with ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’-infected citrus or periwinkle, indicating that ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ bacteria multiplied at a lower titer in these tomato cultivars. References: (1) J. M. Bové, J. Plant Pathol. 88:7, 2006. (2) S. E. Halbert et al. Fla. Entomol. 87:330, 2004. (3) W. Li et al. J. Microbiol. Methods 66:104, 2006. (4) L. Z. Zhou et al. Plant Dis. 91:227, 2007.
In this study we analyzed the membrane lipid composition of “
Nitrosopumilus maritimus,” the only cultivated representative of the cosmopolitan group I crenarchaeota and the only mesophilic isolate of the phylum
. The core lipids of “
. Nitrosopumilus maritimus” consisted of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) with zero to four cyclopentyl moieties. Crenarchaeol, a unique GDGT containing a cyclohexyl moiety in addition to four cyclopentyl moieties, was the most abundant GDGT. This confirms unambiguously that crenarchaeol is synthesized by species belonging to the group I.1a crenarchaeota. Intact polar lipid analysis revealed that the GDGTs have hexose, dihexose, and/or phosphohexose head groups. Similar polar lipids were previously found in deeply buried sediments from the Peru margin, suggesting that they were in part synthesized by group I crenarchaeota.