Publications (2826)

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‘Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis’, a multicellular, magnetotactic prokaryote from a hypersaline environment

Citation
Abreu et al. (2007). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 57 (6)
Names
Ca. Magnetoglobus multicellularis
Subjects
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics General Medicine Microbiology
Abstract
Phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic characterization were used to assign a multicellular magnetotactic prokaryote the name ‘Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis’. ‘Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis' lives in a large hypersaline coastal lagoon from Brazil and has properties that are unique among prokaryotes. It consists of a compact assembly or aggregate of flagellated bacterial cells, highly organized in a sphere, that swim in either helical or straight trajectories. The life cycle of ‘Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis' is completely multicellular, in which one aggregate grows by enlarging the size of its cells and approximately doubling the volume of the whole organism. Cells then divide synchronously, maintaining the spherical arrangement; finally the cells separate into two identical aggregates. Phylogenetic 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that ‘Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis' is related to the dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria within the Deltaproteobacteria and to other previously described, but not yet well characterized, multicellular magnetotactic prokaryotes.

Initial Characterization of the Photosynthetic Apparatus of “ Candidatus Chlorothrix halophila,” a Filamentous, Anoxygenic Photoautotroph

Citation
van de Meene et al. (2007). Journal of Bacteriology 189 (11)
Names
Ca. Chlorothrix halophila
Subjects
Microbiology Molecular Biology
Abstract
ABSTRACT “ Candidatus Chlorothrix halophila” is a recently described halophilic, filamentous, anoxygenic photoautotroph (J. A. Klappenbach and B. K. Pierson, Arch. Microbiol. 181: 17-25, 2004) that was enriched from the hypersaline microbial mats at Guerrero Negro, Mexico. Analysis of the photosynthetic apparatus by negative staining, spectroscopy, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the photosynthetic apparatus in this organism has similarities to the photosynthetic apparatus in both the Chloroflexi and Chlorobi phyla of green photosynthetic bacteria. The chlorosomes were found to be ellipsoidal and of various sizes, characteristics that are comparable to characteristics of chlorosomes in other species of green photosynthetic bacteria. The absorption spectrum of whole cells was dominated by the chlorosome bacteriochlorophyll c (BChl c ) peak at 759 nm, with fluorescence emission at 760 nm. A second fluorescence emission band was observed at 870 nm and was tentatively attributed to a membrane-bound antenna complex. Fluorescence emission spectra obtained at 77 K revealed another complex that fluoresced at 820 nm, which probably resulted from the chlorosome baseplate complex. All of these results suggest that BChl c is present in the chlorosomes of “ Ca . Chlorothrix halophila,” that BChl a is present in the baseplate, and that there is a membrane-bound antenna complex. Analysis of the proteins in the chlorosomes revealed an ∼6-kDa band, which was found to be related to the BChl c binding protein CsmA found in other green bacteria. Overall, the absorbance and fluorescence spectra of “ Ca . Chlorothrix halophila” revealed an interesting mixture of photosynthetic characteristics that seemed to have properties similar to properties of both phyla of green bacteria when they were compared to the photosynthetic characteristics of Chlorobium tepidum and Chloroflexus aurantiacus .

Molecular detection of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" in a lion (Panthera leo) from a brazilian zoological garden

Citation
Guimaraes et al. (2007). Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo 49 (3)
Names
Ca. Mycoplasma haemominutum
Subjects
General Medicine Infectious Diseases
Abstract
Although Mycoplasma haemofelis and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" infections have been reported in wild cats from United States, their presence among native and captive wild cats in Brazil is still unknown. A 12 year old healthy male lion (Panthera leo) from the Zoological Garden of Curitiba, Brazil was anesthetized for transportation and dental evaluation. A blood sample was obtained for a complete blood cell count (CBC) and PCR analysis. DNA was extracted and fragments of Mycoplasma haemofelis and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" 16S ribosomal RNA gene were amplified in PCR assays. CBC results were within reference intervals. A weak band of 192 pb for "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" was observed, and no band was amplified from Mycoplasma haemofelis reaction. A weak PCR band associated with normal CBC results and without visible parasitemia or clinical signs may suggest a chronic subclinical infection with "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum". The lack of clinical signs may also represent the low pathogenicity of this organism; however, it is noteworthy that immune suppression caused by management and/or corticoids treatment may induce parasitemia and anemia in this animal. This detection suggests further studies in captive wild cats in Brazilian Zoological Gardens.

Pigment Analysis of “ Candidatus Chlorothrix halophila,” a Green Filamentous Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacterium

Citation
Olson et al. (2007). Journal of Bacteriology 189 (11)
Names
Ca. Chlorothrix halophila
Subjects
Microbiology Molecular Biology
Abstract
ABSTRACT The pigment composition of “ Candidatus Chlorothrix halophila,” a filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium found in Baja California Sur, Mexico, was determined. Previous work showed that bacteriochlorophyll c (BChl c ) was the major pigment in “ Ca . Chlorothrix halophila,” but it was not clear if this bacterium also contains BChl a (J. A. Klappenbach and B. K. Pierson, Arch. Microbiol. 181: 17-25, 2004). Here we show that in addition to BChl c , a small amount of a pigment that is spectrally indistinguishable from BChl a is present in cell extracts of “ Ca . Chlorothrix halophila.” Nevertheless, the BChl a -like pigment from “ Ca . Chlorothrix halophila” has a different molecular weight and a different high-performance liquid chromatography elution time than BChl a from other photosynthetic bacteria. Based on mass spectrometry and other spectroscopic analysis, we determined that the BChl a -like pigment in “ Ca . Chlorothrix halophila” contains a tetrahydrogeranylgeraniol tail rather than the phytol tail that is present in BChl a . The carotenoids and major BChl c homologs in “ Ca . Chlorothrix halophila” were also identified. BChls c were found to be farnesol esterified and geranylgeraniol esterified.

‘Candidatus Aquirestis calciphila’ and ‘Candidatus Haliscomenobacter calcifugiens’, filamentous, planktonic bacteria inhabiting natural lakes

Citation
Hahn et al. (2007). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 57 (5)
Names
Ca. Haliscomenobacter calcifugiens Ca. Aquirestis calciphila
Subjects
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics General Medicine Microbiology
Abstract
Filamentous bacteria frequently occurring in the pelagic zone of natural freshwater lakes and ponds were previously identified as being related to Haliscomenobacter hydrossis based upon their 16S rRNA gene sequences. These bacteria exhibit a specific morphology characterized by the formation of straight, stick-like filaments of variable length (5 to >100 μm) and quite stable, but narrow, width (0.25 to 0.35 μm). Bacteria with these morphological characteristics form a monophyletic but broad phylogenetic group with a maximal divergence of 16S rRNA gene sequences of 12.0 %. This monophyletic group consists of at least three monophyletic subclusters. H. hydrossis is affiliated to one of these subclusters and represents the sole recognized species affiliated to the broad monophyletic group. ‘Candidatus Haliscomenobacter calcifugiens' and ‘Candidatus Aquirestis calciphila’ are uncultured representatives of the other two subclusters and have 16S rRNA gene sequence dissimilarities of 5.4 % and 8.2 %, respectively, with the type strain of H. hydrossis. ‘Candidatus H. calcifugiens' and ‘Candidatus A. calciphila’ have a 16S rRNA gene sequence dissimilarity of 8.5 %. These large ribosomal divergences justify the classification of these environmentally important bacteria as a novel species and a new genus, respectively. Intensive attempts to cultivate these filamentous bacteria have resulted in the establishment of mixed cultures, however, attempts to establish pure cultures have failed.

Detection of Mixed Infections with “Candidatus Mycoplasma Haemominutum” and Mycoplasma Haemofelis Using Real-Time TaqMan Polymerase Chain Reaction

Citation
Sykes et al. (2007). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 19 (3)
Subjects
General Veterinary
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of real-time TaqMan PCR assays for detection of coinfections with “ Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum” (Mhm), and Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf), in vitro and over time in experimentally infected cats. First, the ability of each real-time PCR assay to detect and quantify mixed infections was determined in vitro by testing mixtures of plasmids containing Mhm and Mhf 16S rDNA with each assay. Subsequently, 4 specific pathogen-free (SPF) cats, 2 of which were splenectomized, were inoculated with blood from a cat infected with both Mhm and Mhf. Sixteen blood samples were then collected from each cat over a 55-day period. Each of the 64 postinoculation samples was tested using both conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) and real-time PCR for the 16S rRNA gene of each organism. When applied to mixtures of plasmid DNA from each species, the results of quantitation with each of the real-time PCR assays approximately reflected the number of plasmid copies present. Forty-nine of 64 post-inoculation samples (77%) were positive using both cPCR and real-time PCR, 4 (6%) were positive using cPCR only, and 3 (5%) were positive using real-time PCR only. Both organisms were detected in 23 samples using real-time PCR. Mixed infections were not detected using cPCR. The size of the corresponding cPCR products suggested infection with Mhm in 4 and Mhf in 18 of these samples. The use of multiple separate real-time PCR assays rather than cPCR alone should thus be considered for epidemiologic studies of hemoplasmosis in cats.