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“ Candidatus Accumulibacter” Population Structure in Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Sludges as Revealed by Polyphosphate Kinase Genes

Citation
He et al. (2007). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73 (18)
Names
Ca. Accumulibacter
Subjects
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Biotechnology Ecology Food Science
Abstract
ABSTRACT We investigated the fine-scale population structure of the “ Candidatus Accumulibacter” lineage in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems using the polyphosphate kinase 1 gene ( ppk1 ) as a genetic marker. We retrieved fragments of “ Candidatus Accumulibacter” 16S rRNA and ppk1 genes from one laboratory-scale and several full-scale EBPR systems. Phylogenies reconstructed using 16S rRNA genes and ppk1 were largely congruent, with ppk1 granting higher phylogenetic resolution and clearer tree topology and thus serving as a better genetic marker than 16S rRNA for revealing population structure within the “ Candidatus Accumulibacter” lineage. Sequences from at least five clades of “ Candidatus Accumulibacter” were recovered by ppk1 -targeted PCR, and subsequently, specific primer sets were designed to target the ppk1 gene for each clade. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays using “ Candidatus Accumulibacter”-specific 16S rRNA and “ Candidatus Accumulibacter” clade-specific ppk1 primers were developed and conducted on three laboratory-scale and nine full-scale EBPR samples and two full-scale non-EBPR samples to determine the abundance of the total “ Candidatus Accumulibacter” lineage and the relative distributions and abundances of the five “ Candidatus Accumulibacter” clades. The qPCR-based estimation of the total “ Candidatus Accumulibacter” fraction as a proportion of the bacterial community as measured using 16S rRNA genes was not significantly different from the estimation measured using ppk1 , demonstrating the power of ppk1 as a genetic marker for detection of all currently defined “ Candidatus Accumulibacter” clades. The relative distributions of “ Candidatus Accumulibacter” clades varied among different EBPR systems and also temporally within a system. Our results suggest that the “ Candidatus Accumulibacter” lineage is more diverse than previously realized and that different clades within the lineage are ecologically distinct.

“ Candidatus Bacilloplasma,” a Novel Lineage of Mollicutes Associated with the Hindgut Wall of the Terrestrial Isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda)

Citation
Kostanjsek et al. (2007). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73 (17)
Names
Ca. Bacilloplasma
Subjects
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Biotechnology Ecology Food Science
Abstract
ABSTRACT Pointed, rod-shaped bacteria colonizing the cuticular surface of the hindgut of the terrestrial isopod crustacean Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda) were investigated by comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and electron microscopy. The results of phylogenetic analysis, and the absence of a cell wall, affiliated these bacteria with the class Mollicutes , within which they represent a novel and deeply branched lineage, sharing less than 82.6% sequence similarity to known Mollicutes . The lineage has been positioned as a sister group to the clade comprising the Spiroplasma group, the Mycoplasma pneumoniae group, and the Mycoplasma hominis group. The specific signature sequence was identified and used as a probe in in situ hybridization, which confirmed that the retrieved sequences originate from the attached rod-shaped bacteria from the hindgut of P. scaber and made it possible to detect these bacteria in their natural environment. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed a spherically shaped structure at the tapered end of the rod-shaped bacteria, enabling their specific and exclusive attachment to the tip of the cuticular spines on the inner surface of the gut. Specific adaptation to the gut environment, as well as phylogenetic positioning, indicate the long-term association and probable coevolution of the bacteria and the host. Taking into account their pointed, rod-shaped morphology and their phylogenetic position, the name “ Candidatus Bacilloplasma” has been proposed for this new lineage of bacteria specifically associated with the gut surface of P. scaber .

Diversity of Nitrite Reductase Genes in “ Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis”-Dominated Cultures Enriched by Flow-Cytometric Sorting

Citation
Miyauchi et al. (2007). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73 (16)
Names
Ca. Accumulibacter phosphatis
Subjects
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Biotechnology Ecology Food Science
Abstract
ABSTRACT “ Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis” is considered a polyphosphate-accumulating organism (PAO) though it has not been isolated yet. To reveal the denitrification ability of this organism, we first concentrated this organism by flow cytometric sorting following fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using specific probes for this organism. The purity of the target cells was about 97% of total cell count in the sorted sample. The PCR amplification of the nitrite reductase genes ( nirK and nirS ) from unsorted and sorted cells was performed. Although nirK and nirS were amplified from unsorted cells, only nirS was detected from sorted cells, indicating that “ Ca . Accumulibacter phosphatis” has nirS . Furthermore, nirS fragments were cloned from unsorted (Ba clone library) and sorted (Bd clone library) cells and classified by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The most dominant clone in clone library Ba, which represented 62% of the total number of clones, was not found in clone library Bd. In contrast, the most dominant clone in clone library Bd, which represented 59% of the total number of clones, represented only 2% of the total number of clones in clone library Ba, indicating that this clone could be that of “ Ca . Accumulibacter phosphatis.” The sequence of this nirS clone exhibited less than 90% similarity to the sequences of known denitrifying bacteria in the database. The recovery of the nirS genes makes it likely that “ Ca . Accumulibacter phosphatis” behaves as a denitrifying PAO capable of utilizing nitrite instead of oxygen as an electron acceptor for phosphorus uptake.