Phytoplasmas are phloem-limited plant pathogens, such as sugarcane white leaf (SCWL) phytoplasma, which are responsible for heavy economic losses to the sugarcane industry. Characterization of phytoplasmas has been limited because they cannot be cultured in vitro. However, with the advent of genome sequencing, different aspects of phytoplasmas are being investigated. In this study, we developed a DNA enrichment method for sugarcane white leaf (SCWL) phytoplasma, evaluated the effect of DNA enrichment via Illumina sequencing technologies, and utilized Illumina and Nanopore sequencing technologies to obtain the complete genome sequence of the “Candidatus Phytoplasma sacchari” isolate SCWL1 that is associated with sugarcane white leaf in China. Illumina sequencing analysis elucidated that only 1.21% of the sequencing reads from total leaf DNA were mapped to the SCWL1 genome, whereas 40.97% of the sequencing reads from the enriched DNA were mapped to the SCWL1 genome. The genome of isolate SCWL1 consists of a 538,951 bp and 2976 bp long circular chromosome and plasmid, respectively. We identified 459 protein-encoding genes, 2 complete 5S-23S-16S rRNA gene operons, 27 tRNA genes, and an incomplete potential mobile unit (PMU) in the circular chromosome. Phylogenetic analyses and average nucleotide identity (ANI) and digital DNA–DNA hybridization (dDDH) values based on the sequenced genome revealed that SCWL phytoplasma and sugarcane grassy shoot (SCGS) phytoplasma belonged to the same phytoplasma species. This study provides a genomic DNA enrichment method for phytoplasma sequencing. Moreover, we report the first complete genome of a “Ca. Phytoplasma sacchari” isolate, thus contributing to future studies on the evolutionary relationships and pathogenic mechanisms of “Ca. Phytoplasma sacchari” isolates.
AbstractRecent outbreaks of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ resulted in severe losses in potatoes, vegetable crops and grapevines in certain regions of Austria and constituted a major challenge for seed potato production. Therefore, the effects of various insecticides and insect deterrents on pathogen spread were studied both in laboratory and field experiments from 2018 to 2021. In laboratory transmission experiments, field captured Hyalesthes obsoletus were caged on differently treated Catharanthus roseus for five days. The insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, acetamiprid and chlorpyriphos showed the most rapid impact on insect survival and fully prevented phytoplasma transmission. The particle film forming products kaolin and diatomaceous earth had some effect. A transfer of the promising laboratory results to potato fields, however, was achieved to a limited extent only. Treatments with pyrethroids and acetamiprid every 8–10 days over the flight period of H. obsoletus roughly halved the number of symptomatic plants and tubers in case of moderately susceptible varieties and moderate infection pressure. In the event of susceptible varieties and high disease pressure, treatment effects were hardy discernible. In practical terms, the experiments indicate that insecticide applications alone are not sufficient to mitigate the disease. Spraying of diatomaceous earth and mineral oil did not affect disease incidence in the field.
AbstractAnaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) carry out anaerobic oxidation of methane, thus playing a crucial role in the methane cycle. Previous genomic evidence indicates that multi-heme c-type cytochromes (MHCs) may facilitate the extracellular electron transfer (EET) from ANME to different electron sinks. Here, we provide experimental evidence supporting cytochrome-mediated EET for the reduction of metals and electrodes by ‘Candidatus Methanoperedens nitroreducens’, an ANME acclimated to nitrate reduction. Ferrous iron-targeted fluorescent assays, metatranscriptomics, and single-cell imaging suggest that ‘Ca. M. nitroreducens’ uses surface-localized redox-active cytochromes for metal reduction. Electrochemical and Raman spectroscopic analyses also support the involvement of c-type cytochrome-mediated EET for electrode reduction. Furthermore, several genes encoding menaquinone cytochrome type-c oxidoreductases and extracellular MHCs are differentially expressed when different electron acceptors are used.
Autophagy plays an important role against pathogen infection in many organisms; however, little has been done with regard to vector-borne plant and animal pathogens, that sometimes replicate and cause deleterious effects in their vectors.
Liberibacter solanacearum (CLso) is a fastidious gram-negative phloem-restricted plant pathogen and vectored by the carrot psyllid,
. The plant disease caused by this bacterium is called carrot yellows and has recently gained much importance due to worldwide excessive economical losses. Here, we demonstrate that calcium ATPase, cytosolic calcium, and most importantly Beclin-1 have a role in regulating autophagy and its association with Liberibacter inside the psyllid. The presence of CLso generates reactive oxygen species and induces the expression of detoxification enzymes in the psyllid midguts, a main site for bacteria transmission. CLso also induces the expression of both sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+pump (SERCA) and 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (ITPR) in midguts, resulting in high levels of calcium in the cellular cytosol. Silencing these genes individually disrupted the calcium levels in the cytosol and resulted in direct effects on autophagy and subsequently on Liberibacter persistence and transmission. Inhibiting Beclin1-phosphorylation through different calcium-induced kinases altered the expression of autophagy and CLso titers and persistence. Based on our results obtained from the midgut, we suggest the existence of a direct correlation between cytosolic calcium levels, autophagy, and CLso persistence and transmission by the carrot psyllid.
Plant diseases caused by vector-borne Liberibacter species are responsible for the most important economic losses in many agricultural sectors. Preventing these diseases relies mostly on chemical sprays against the insect vectors. Knowledge-based interference with the bacteria-vector interaction remains a promising approach as a sustainable solution. For unravelling how Liberibacter exploits molecular pathways in its insect vector for transmission, here, we show that the bacterium manipulates calcium levels on both sides of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, resulting in manipulating autophagy. Silencing genes associated with these pathways disrupted the calcium levels in the cytosol and resulted in direct effects on autophagy and Liberibacter transmission. These results demonstrate major pathways that could be exploited for manipulating and controlling the disease transmission.
Candidatus Accumulibacter belongs to phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) which exhibit cyclic metabolism and are capable of intracellular polyphosphate accumulation and their hydrolysis under feast-famine anaerobic-aerobic cycling. In consortia of activated sludge microorganisms, these bacteria are responsible for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). The spectrum of the substrates used by Ca. Accumulibacter remains insufficiently studied. It was investigated by measuring the oxygen uptake rates (OUR) of Ca. Accumulibacter-enriched culture supplemented with 17 different organic substrates. The highest oxygen uptake rates values were observed in the presence of tryptone, volatile fatty acids (acetate, propionate, and butyrate), succinate, pyruvate, and amino acids (aspartate and glutamate). Phosphate dynamics in the medium under shifts from anaerobic to aerobic cultivation in batch experiments was studied for these compounds (except for tryptone). All tested substrates were shown to cause phosphate cycling (release in the anaerobic phase and uptake in the aerobic one), with OURs for the substrates correlating with the amount of phosphates consumed during the aerobic phase. It was concluded that OUR may be used as an indicator of the monosubstrates used by Ca. Accumulibacter in the anaerobic/aerobic cycle. The possible pathways for substrate transport and metabolism by Ca. Accumulibacter are discussed using the stoichiometric data and the results of metagenomic analysis.
Candidatus Ornithobacterium hominis (O. hominis), which was found in Egyptian nasopharyngeal swabs but remains unidentified, has been associated with respiratory disorders in humans. Herein, we presented two draft genome assemblies of O. hominis that were extracted from metagenomic data using the Illumina sequencing method. The primary goal of this study was to present the first O. hominis genome sequence from Egyptian populations.
The genome size was estimated to be 1,931,660 base pairs (bp), with 1,837 predicted coding regions and a G + C content of 35.62%. The toxA gene, 20 antibiotic resistance genes, and gliding motility genes were found in the genome assembly. Gliding motility lipoproteins (GldD, GldJ, GldN, and GldH) and the gliding motility-associated ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, which acts as a crucial virulence mechanism in Flavobacterium species, were identified. The genome contained unique proteins, such as the ParE1 toxin, that exhibit a defense mechanism against quinolone and other antibiotic actions. The cobalt-zinc-cadmium resistance protein CzcB, which is necessary for metal resistance, urease regulation, and colonization, was also detected. Several multidrug resistance proteins were identified, such as MexB, mdtK, yheI, and VanC.
Numerous virulence factors such as toxA and gliding motility genes, were present in the core O. hominis genome. Additionally, the draft genome contains several antibiotic-resistance genes. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the genomic landscape of O. hominis and the identification of genes involved in virulence and antibiotic resistance.
A slow growing species of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) was isolated from the liver of an Amazon milk frog. The complete genome of this isolate comprises 5,102,433 bp, exhibiting 66.86% GC content, 4,940 protein-coding sequences, 52 predicted RNA genes, and 39 repeat regions.