The genome of Candidatus phytoplasma ziziphi provides insights into their biological characteristics

Xue et al. (2023). BMC Plant Biology 23 (1)
Names (1)
Ca. Phytoplasma ziziphi
Plant Science
AbstractPhytoplasmas are obligate cell wall-less prokaryotic bacteria that primarily multiply in plant phloem tissue. Jujube witches’ broom (JWB) associated with phytoplasma is a destructive disease of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.). Here we report the complete ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma ziziphi’ chromosome of strain Hebei-2018, which is a circular genome of 764,108-base pairs with 735 predicted CDS. Notably, extra 19,825 bp (from 621,995 to 641,819 bp) compared to the previously reported one complements the genes involved in glycolysis, such as pdhA, pdhB, pdhC, pdhD, ackA, pduL and LDH. The synonymous codon usage bias (CUB) patterns by using comparative genomics analysis among the 9 phytoplasmas were similar for most codons. The ENc-GC3s analysis among the 9 phytoplasmas showed a greater effect under the selection on the CUBs of phytoplasmas genes than mutation and other factors. The genome exhibited a strongly reduced ability in metabolic synthesis, while the genes encoding transporter systems were well developed. The genes involved in sec-dependent protein translocation system were also identified.The expressions of nine FtsHs encoding membrane associated ATP-dependent Zn proteases and Mn-SodA with redox capacity in the Ca. P. ziziphi was positively correlated with the phytoplasma concentration. Taken together, the genome will not only expand the number of phytoplasma species and provide some new information about Ca. P. ziziphi, but also contribute to exploring its pathogenic mechanism.
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